PSYC 429 week of 3/1 notes
PSYC 429 week of 3/1 notes Psyc 429
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dawn Kohler on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 429 at Truman State University taught by Dr. Robert Tigner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see History and Systems of Psychology in Psychlogy at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Psyc 429 3-1 and 3-3 Structuralism and Functionalism Review: Follow the story listen to the big picture, review notes. Darwin theory of evolution changed everything after it. Galton applied theory of evolution to human intelligence (nature genetic perspective) both were english. William James (American) writes principles in psychology. Hall provides structure labs and journals. Structuralism- teichner- abject failure. was wrong but inspired functionalism which was founded by Dewey with Research arc. Functionalism will set up behaviorism, but we will return to intelligence first. Paradox studying nurture while believing in nature. Principles of Psychology- makes people decide to become psychologists Education reform how should we teach vocab words? Independent variables Gallelieo and experimental method why do we call it the independent variable? Slide 12: James Rowland Angell Studied under Dewey at Michigan. Reads Principles of Psyc and writes paper for his master in 1890 leaves to study under James at Harvard. Applies to German PhD program at the University of Halle but doesn’t quite earn it because he didn’t speak fluent enough German. Never rewrote his PhD as he was to busy at the university of Chicago in 1895. Later becomes president of Yale without PhD. Slide 13: Presidential Addresses of APA: all of APA gets together allow you to shape direction of discipline. Lays out a guide for how to be a functionalist. Shows people how to be functionalists and do research. Ask How and Why questions not What questions. Your mind mediates between the external world and your needs. Goes back to Dewey’s quote about thought. How does the mind help us get what we want? This opens the door for subfields of psychology. Functionalism supports: developmental , abnormal, applied , comparative, neuropsychology branches of psychology. Structuralists didn’t support theses branches. Slide 14: Harvey A Carr found that studying animals was much easier than studying humans. Used rats learning mazes to study learning. Do animals have consciousness? Really hard to prove. Can’t explain unless it can’t by a reflex. They find that they can’t prove it. Can’t prove that human can either. Lower level processes. Reaction time- rat running maze- learning. Developed a system of equally hard mazes, same number of false leads and correct turns. Standard level of difficulty established a control. Had to be aware of motivation (fast or slow). Less food more motivated. Certain degree of food deprivation kept constant. Slide 15: Edward Thorndike Columbia University Set his own standard for academic achievement wants the highest grade on every test. Best test grade ever. Best of any opportunity to excel academically. Writes an essay over Principles of psychology to win a scholarship and decides to study under James at Harvard. James was at this point involved in philosophy and parapsychology interested in séances, fortunetelling and mind reading. How do people convince others they can read their mind. Told Thorndike that he thought that mind readers are good at picking up on body cues. He thinks it would be easy to train children to mind read. Harvard administrators don’t like it. Thorndike is told by administration to study learning behavior with chickens. Thorndike creates mazes in James basement with books from his library. Recruited to Columbia by Cattell with a scholarship. 1897. First research he does is Trial and Error boxes that shapes the world. Studies first with chickens then with Cats. Slide 16: Measures the time for animals to get out of the box to get to food. Accidently opens the box during the first time. Then learns the escape a little faster each time with a decrease of novel behaviors. Slide 17: Instrumental Conditioning originally called “Trial and accidental success”. Law of effect behaviors that are rewarded are repeated those that aren’t are not repeated. This is his Dissertation work published in Science and Psych Review. Would later be the foundation of Watson’s behaviorism. Slide 18: Thorndike’s Career Intelligence testing: sentence completion, math, vocab, ability to follow directions. Completion Arithmetic Vocabulary Direction. Used a nature perspective. You are born to be intelligent or not. Despite their work which was based on nurture Writes Educational Psychology- made a lot of money here. Writes user friendly dictionaries and word frequency list. Regular dictionaries don’t work well to learn vocab. Developed using color large font using easier words in definitions were easier than the word that is being defined. Teach vocab on the frequency of use first. Instead of complexity. Found out what the most used words were. Made grad student tally words manually to come up with most common words in the English Language. Still use word frequency lists today. Does research in transfer of training with Woodworth. Slide 19: Robert Woodworth Trained as a teacher. Read principles of psyc and leaves to study at Harvard under James. Recruited by Cattell too due to Thorndike’s suggestion. Transfer of training- curricular change at Harvard originally fixed Liberal Arts: difficult texts in different languages. They wanted to move towards an elective curriculum. Doctrine of Formal Discipline: challenging tasks make the mind better equipt to handle a task in another area. Transfer of training: quantify that some skills transfer from one area to another. Came up with area estimation task: rectangle vs triangle this was used by them to support that liberal arts was useful not found valid. Woodworth studies under Kulpe in Germany Imageless thought could be possible. Problem for structuralism made it pointless. Doubting and Judging is done without imagery. Woodworth- Psychology uses everyday terms in different ways than other people do. The discipline may be more specific. We don’t have specific words. Thought it would be better to change the name of psychology to Motivology and create other psyc words. Wants to discuss S-O-R system O= organism. His idea of Primary and Secondary drive still exist. Need primary to exist. Secondary (money and praise) Most popular book was over Experimental Psychology (1938) better than Tiechner’s. Nicknamed Woodworth’s book the bible. Came up with the terms independent variable and dependent variable. Manipulating the independent variable, measuring the dependent variables. Labels spread to other disciplines. Stated that Correlation doesn’t infer causation. Students thought that Correlations were bad or wrong. Little Correlation research was done after this point. Slide 20: Deaths of structuralism and functionalism Structuralism appeared scientific but was not using cadavers to study the meaning of life. Titchener had to tight of control on internal validity destroyed consciousness couldn’t relate to findings destroyed external validity. Other experimenters use real world senerios with no control of internal validity. Functionalism evolves into sub disciplines of psychology Behaviorism, developmental, abnormal and personality. Slide 21: Then to now: Stimulus > black box > Response (then) reflex arc Structualists focused just on the black box or mind. Functionalists look at the whole arc. Behaviorists just focus on the response. Today goal behavior and mental processes in human’s and animals. Subfield’s fit in the theme 3/3/16 Applying new Psychology PowerPoint Slide 1: “tell me what you are looking for and I will tell you what you’ll find” Binet’s quote on bias Slide 2: beautiful poem, Broca’s area, how do you make a child’s head shrink? The most remarkable tale of credulity” Credulity-tendency to be too ready to believe that something is real or true. Slide 3: Cattell First American to get Phd under Wundt. Professor at Pennsylvania the Columbia. Thinks about evolution of intelligence while meeting Galton. Compulsive measurers of the mind. Good at turning things into numbers. Tennis and chess were influential and he turned factors around it into numbers. Compulsively measures his reactions drugs and alcohol. Measures his reaction to Caffiene, wine, pot (on pot he was an awesome poet and artist). Does away with physical measures of Galton’s anthropometric tests he called them mental test. Once he is a professor at Columbia he gives freshmen test with ten tasks, bisect a line in half, grip strength mechanism, digit span task (remember random numbers after five seconds of delay). Digit span is the only survivor. Correlations 1902 show r near 0 Slide 4: Cattell Publisher and Promoter Owned 7 journals including Psychological review 1894 co-founded with James Baldwin, Re invigorates the journal Science in 1895 originally owned by Bell and Edison. Becomes flagship journal of the AAAS (American association for the Advancement of science) in 1900. Cattell published a translation on X-rays. Medical Drs. Buy the journal to learn about x-rays. Starts the Psychology Corporation 1921 Who owns the rights to testing is now part of the Pearson clinical assessment Fired from Columbia in 1917 because he didn’t like that pacifists were drafted. Slide 5: Broca’s Craniometry Measuring the cranium believed that intelligence could be measured by the size of the head. Men have bigger head circumferences which proved the bia that men are smarter than women. Measured skulls too and saw that there is more of a difference in volume in men’s skull now than in the old skulls. Slide 6: Binet Family pressure to become M.D. Dad causes him to develop a phobia of dead people Family money and become gentleman scholar like Galton Makes three experimental mistakes. 1. publishes an article on the 2pt threshold but later retracted it because it was already published and found untrue. Slide 7: Salpetriere Largest hospital in paris with female patients with psyc disorders. Director of Salpetriere was Charcot who used hypnosis to treat hysteria. Binet works as an intern and tinkers with hypnosis. He finds a link between Magnetic power and hypnosis. Thinks they are related to health. Magnets while hipnotised will give polarization in mood turns out to be nonsense. Transfer- induce symptoms with magnets and hypnosis. When he publishes his paper. His peers say his study is actually just suggestive. Slide 8: Work at the Sorbong where he learns about craniometry Does research on craniometry and school children’s heads. Binet’s student’s workers have bias. Importance of suggestion. Slide 9: Story of Cleaver Hans a Horse. He can stomp out the right answers to math questions an read. People around Germany come to see this horse. The team of Stumpf and others couldn’t find any trickery. Slide 10: Pfungst discovered the truth The horse needed to see people to answer the question due to nonverbal cues Slide 11: Intelligence Individual psychology Studies extrodenary intelligent people but can’t find commonalities. Young daughters excelled in some Galtonian anthropometric tasks. Questions construct validity. His daughter’s visual acuity and reaction time higher than geniuses. Develops his own tasks. Some his older daughter can do and his younger daughter can’t yet. This evolves into the first real intelligent test.
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