Thursday, March 03, 2016 Lecture
Thursday, March 03, 2016 Lecture HIST 1312
Popular in US History 1865 to Present
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Popular in History
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nina Nguyen on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1312 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Burton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see US History 1865 to Present in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
THE JULY CRISIS AND AUGUSTUS MADNESS The Great War Begins Participation Points are now done on Blackboard (200 words) due on Wednesday @ 11:59PM a week later 1. Origins and Alliances a. Escalation of problems start to snowball 2. Background a. All of Balkans unite to defeat Ottoman Empire (who is teamed up with Germany because Germany has been helping them industrialize) b. Serbia wants to unite all of the Balkan areas, especially over Bosnia. AH wants Bosnia too. c. 1914 builds on previous diplomatic history d. German unification ruins balance of power i. Bismarck had kept everything better 1. Said that Germany will only be a stable unit ii. Kaiser Wilhelm ruined it all 1. Starts acquiring territory 2. Building power 3. Alliances a. Three Emperors’ League (Germany, AustriaHungary, Russia) get together to maintain European peace i. Made by Bismarck, but didn’t work b. Dual Alliance (Germany and AustriaHungary) 1879 i. 1887: Secret Reinsurance Treaty with Russia ii. AH and Russia are not good friends due to the Balkan Crisis 1. Germany doesn’t want to get in a war with Russia if R and AH go to war c. 1894: France and Russia bffs i. But Kaiser fires Bismarck 1. The agreement with FR and R are now gone. 2. Russia and Germany start becoming discontent d. Weltpolitik: Wilhelm’s World Policy i. Builds up the German Navy e. G, AH, Italy are now in an alliance (Triple Alliance) f. British Isolation i. Approaches its rival: France ii. G wants to make an alliance with Britain, but G wants to be BR. BR is very unwilling to ally itself with G. BR just wants to stay number 1 in the world (largest empire and navy). iii. BR is worried about the Triple Alliance, so now they look for allies 1. BR team up with Japan 2. 1904: settle disputes with FR. Signs Entente Cordiale g. Britain says that they will go to war if anyone causes any trouble in France h. German Plan for War Schleffin Plan i. Germany knew that FR was weak but fast. Russia is strong but slow. ii. Take care of France first and then turn around and fight Russia iii. In a war with France, Germany calls for a swing through Belgium to capture the French govt before any confrontation takes place iv. Then, they would remobilize to go back and fight Russia on the other side i. French Plan for War against Germany Plan 17 i. France wants to retake territory ii. They would quickly and strongly strike straight in to Germany iii. Belief: the attacker had the advantage if they attack ferociously enough, aka the Cult of the Offensive. 1. Everyone believed this in Europe. Don’t want to negotiate out of the war. 4. July Crisis a. Starts due to a terrorist attack. Serbia wants control of Bosnia, but Bosnia had annexed by AH. AH is on the verge of destruction because their emperor (Josef), but there is an heir. b. Terrorist Attack i. July 28 , 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand visit Bosnia 1. People in Bosnia love being under the AH govt. ii. Gavrillo Princip and the Black Hand 1. The Serbians want AH to relinquish their control. The Black Hand sends assassins to throw bombs the Ferdinand 2. One assassin smacks a bomb, making a sound, the driver sees it and accelerates away, Ferdinand smacks it away. Bomb kills civilian 3. The assassin tries to kill himself, but the crowd arrests him 4. Ferdinand is pissed at City Hall, but he calms down. He thinks it’s a good PR move. He wants to visit the survivors, but he doesn’t tell his driver. 5. The driver gets confused, reverses the car, the car’s transmission explodes. 6. A member of the Black hand (18 yrs old) just happens to be here at a sandwich shop. Pulls out his gun and kills them successfully. 7. Assassins represent Serbia; they aren’t government sponsored but the Black Hand is proSerbia iii. Colonel Dragutin Dimitrijevic 1. Head of the Serbian intelligence c. Nothing is holding AH together now. They stage a showdown and confront Serbia. They know Russia is going to come in to protect Serbia. AH sends delegate to Germany for support (if they go to war) 5. Ultimatums rd a. July 23 i. AH to Serbia ii. Conditions are almost ridiculous. iii. Goal is to make Serbia reject the conditions. 1. You have 48 hours to accept. b. July 25 th i. thrbia accepts most conditions, except for 2. c. July 28 i. AH declares war on Serbia d. July 30 th i. Russia starts mobilization to go to war with AH. e. July 31 st i. Germany orders Russia to stop military mobilization within 12 hours. Russia doesn’t stop. 6. Declarations a. August 1 st i. Germany declares war on Russia b. Germany initiates Schlieffen Plan. c. August 2 nd i. Germany orders Belgium to let it through. 1. Great Britain says that if G violates Belgium’s neutrality laws. ii. Signs OttomanGerman Alliance d. August 3 rd i. Gethany declares war on France e. August 4 i. Germany invades Belgium ii. Britain declares war on Germany iii. Italy decides to stay out of it (Triple Alliance) 1. Should have joined G and AH, but the only thing Italy wants its land from AH from the postNapoleonic War. But they realize that AH wouldn’t give the land to them regardless. 2. 1915: Italy and BR signs Secret Treaty of London, says IT will get land from AH. Brings Italy into the war on GB and FR side, against GR and AH 7. Who started the war? a. Every country declares that they are fighting a defensive war. b. The Treaty of Versailles in 1918 force GR to say that they started the war. Did this to make GR pay money. c. One of the biggest causes of this war: failism i. Felt that war is inevitably going to happen; they knew! ii. Stop looking for avenues for peace. Started preparing for war! 1. Example: Schlieffen Plan was made years before! 8. August Madness a. Crowds were happy that there was a war! People flocked to the recruiting stations. Kaiser Wilhelm made a speech, where he only saw Germans. b. Imperial unity. Germany needs this sense of unity the most. i. Concept that talks about a unity under a castle of siege. Doesn’t matter what happens in the castle. 1. Divert attention from social problems 2. War becomes a war of production 3. Germany could have defeated FR and R easily, but they can’t defeat GB, FR, R, US, etc. c. Wave of inner paranoia within countries. Started targeting Germans who lived in other countries. i. Countries start renaming monuments and goods to get rid of German sounding names. ii. Propaganda 9. The Entente Powers a. Great Power i. Pop: 45 mil b. France i. Pop: 35 mil c. Russia i. Pop: about 125 150mil 10. The Central Power 11. Battle of the Frontiers a. Plans implemented b. Series of mobile battles i. Mulhouse ii. Haelen iii. Lorraine iv. Ardennes v. Charleroi vi. Mons c. Germany wheels through Belgium i. BR and FR pushed back. 12. Battle of the Marne: Sept 610, 1914 a. On 6 , FR attack exposed line; taxicab reinforcements save the day on the 7 th amidst a thrman counteroffensive b. On the 8 , FR and BR attacks and exploit the gap in GR lines c. On the 8 , FR resist German CounterOffensive d. German advance stopped e. German goals not met f. Germans retreat back to Aisne River 13. The Race to the Sea a. Another series of battles… b. Turn the flank of the enemy i. Each side is essentially trying to get the other to turn around itself so that one side can surround the other side c. Trench warfare begins d. Once GR loses the Battle of the Marne, some historians say they lost the war because now, Schlieffen Plan failed. 14. GR trenches are bigger (idle), GB don’t want to dig in and expand their trenches they want to mobilize again to push Germany out 15. No Man’s Land hell on Earth 16. People couldn’t just leave the trenches. Trenches are low, where constant rain is filling it> Disease 17. Each side will try to come up with new ways to get their enemies out of their trench> tanks, airplanes, grenades, longerrange guns (biggest successfullyused gun for war), reciprocating warfare (used to decrease the enemy’s morale) 18. After a couple of weeks/months, the sides stop shooting each other. On Christmas, people can go on No Man’s Land and hang out. But as a commander, you don’t want that! As a result, people are begin rotated, so that no one gets a chance to learn about their enemy. 19. Mobilizing for the prolonged conflict a. People were excited as first, but interest is decreasing. b. Institutionalized propaganda begins flooding the streets c. Both sides realize that they have untapped resource of men. i. India, if you serve, you will earn a better life while fighting for your empire ii. Irish, Ireland wants to be free. They’re a part of BR Empire. 1916, Easter UpRise. iii. BR, if BR loses, every country will have something to lose. 20. Neutrality? a. Woodrow Wilson (19131921) attempts to maintain neutrality and trade with Entente and Central Powers i. Wins election of 1912 because Roosevelt ran as a progressive and split the Repub party ii. Asks BR to abide by the 1909 Declaration of London iii. US Trade with Entente explodes 1. No trade with the Central Powers iv. US lends Entente 100 times more than to Central Powers 1. US lends BR 120 mill 2. US loans Allies 2 bill v. BR and allies cut off the Central Power’s trade with a blockade 1. GR doesn’t really try to break it vi. America’s exports quadruples in four years. vii. Other countries are borrowing money to buy American products. viii. Germany wants to start a blockade on BR too.
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