week 10 of notes
week 10 of notes BIOL-L 105
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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelyn Scott on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL-L 105 at Indiana University taught by T.J. Sullivan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Ch 26 Speciation 261 263 11714 111014 What is a species 11714 CHE Biological species concept I Reproductive isolation D Species defined by inability to produce fertile offspring D Prezygotic mechanisms that prevent individuals from mating D Postzygotic offspring don t survive reproduce 11714 Prezygotic barriers I Temporal D breeding occurs at different times I Behavioral D variation in courtship displays I Mechanical D incompatible reproductive structures I Gametic barrier D proteins on surface are incompatible 11714 q Postzygotic barriers I Hybrid viability 1 Hybrid embryos don t survive die as embryos 3 Hybrids survive but are sterile 111014 11714 Morphospecies concepts 11714 q Morphospecies concepts 11714 q Morphospecies concepts 50ml loan Spock 9013 031w Butts mmu 11714 Morphospecies concepts Meadowlarks 11714 111014 Morphospecies concepts Convergent evolution 11714 Phylogenetic species concept a Monophyletic groups Monophyletic group an ancestral population and all descendants l Synapomorphy trait unique to a monophyletic group 11714 Phylogenetic species concept a Monophyletic groups A I that defines a group 39 Can be E morphological or genetic DNA sequences I Synapomerphy trait unique 0 a monophylelic group 11714 I Synapomorphy ISynapomorphy that defines mammals fur and lactation ISynapomorphy that defines angiosperms owers 111014 1 Synapomorphy b Phylogenetic species smallest monophyletic groups Indian r Sri Lankan Asian 3939 Sumatran m elephants Borneo DzangaSangha African Lope 1 K savannah Odzala elephants Cameroon 7 African i Eastern Africa forest g Southern Africa eiephams Unique DNA Species Populations sequences 17 11714 H n4 Applications of spec1es concepts a Each subspecies of seaside sparrow has a restricted range quot i3quot f T gt r V r maritime 7 T 5 Atlantic if 7 Coast quot J g macgillivraii iunicola Gulf Coast nigrescens n u fisheri peninsulae H n4 1 Applications of species concepts a Each subspecies of seaside sparrow has a restricted range I Subspecies populations that live in distinct geographic area 7 Sim W Have distinctive m features but not considered different enough to be true species macgillivraii unicola Gulf Coast nigrescens I Little migration between them Iisheri peninsulae 11714 TApplications of species concepts 3 Each subspecies of seaside sparrow has a restricted range lqv urn1 7 39 5 e T V r I The dusky sea51de mamllna 1 39 quot ggggpc sparrow Ammodramus 7 magnum man timus nigrescens population dropped to 6 individuals unicola Gulf Coast nigrescens Iisheri peninsulae 111014 TApplications of species concepts 3 Each subspecies of seaside sparrow has a restricted range kAHT ff r r I N l V r 39 iiV I r r 1 4 I If you want to introduce genetic mamllna r ggggsc diversity back to the 39 dusky seaside sparrow population Where do annex 39 Kl Wm you take the migrants Iisheri peninsulae macgillivraii 11714 11714 Applications of spec1es concepts a Each subspecies of seaside sparrow has a b The six subspecies form two monophyletic restricted range groups when DNA sequences are compared N I manimm g T 39 l I quotmama S O V 7 masons E An a mumquot I a n c penum Co gt quotmm E mmmnw g A unison x l n I Onquot Com Memo hmquot Domain 11714 I Speciation ISame mechanisms as before just given more time IGenetic diversity between populations becomes much larger 11714 Allopatric speciation INevv species arise when gene ow is eliminated Reproductive isolation Other evolutionary processes create variation after the fact IAllopatric population that are isolated ISplitting of the habitat vicariance 11714 111014 q Allopatric speciation a PROCESS ALLOPATRIC SPECIATION BY DISPERSAL Allopatric speciation b PROCESS ALLOPATRIC SPECIATION BY VICARIANCE O 00 0 8 000000 00 O O 00 OO 1Chance O OO O O O O 0 separation 00 O O 5 000 o o o oo0 o 000 O O O o 00 008000 00 OO 0 0 2 Genetic drift 0 O O O o 00 0 and selection 00 000 80 0000 O oO o 0 00 O O OO O 90 0090 00 O 0 00 0 3Two 000 O 0 o 0 populations 00 O 00 0 0 0 areisolated 00 OO0 0 0 9 11714 Dispersal 008 O o a d O O O colonization O 1 Dispersal and O 0000 006 colonization O o O OO 00 O O O 0 COO o o O O O O OO 2 Genetic drift 0 O O 000 and selection C C CC 3 quot O O OO O O 00 o o O O O O O 3 Two 0 O O O O populations 0 OO O O are isolated O O o o o 00 11714 3 27 Allopatric speciation a Vicariance event The closing of the Isthmus of Panama Snapping shrimp popuiations were separated by the closing of the isthmus 11714 111014 Allopatric speciation lHypothesis the isthmus of Panama separated individual species into 2 isolated populations that underwent speciation ITest Look for genetic similarities by sequencing their DNA lWhat is the prediction for this hypothesis 11714 A on the same side of the B on the opposite side of c shrimp don t have DNA You would predict that the most closely related species of a given shrimp species would be found isthmus the isthmus 0 0 11714 Allopatric speciation Species A Species A Mutation selection drift time Species B Species B 11714 Allopatric speciation Species A Species A Species B Species B 11714 111014 CH 32 CH 33 Li Li Allopatric spec1ation Sympatric spec1ation b Result Pairs of sister species straddling the isthmus C O 7 pacific 1 9 0 O Caribbean 1 L60 0 00 C Linaividuais Q r O COBXISL I O O O Pacific 2 I Reproduct1ve isolation o a 0 80C Caribbean h 1 Snapping shrimp W en 1V1ng 11139 e How m 0961 0 O Pacific 3 Species are more same place quot5 be 0 O V 0 L 2Genetlcdrl and selection 0 O C 0 000 J Caribbean 3 quotquotquot quot closely related to No gene J O OQOU sister 5 ecies on quotW i 0 Pacific 4 a the 0th side of I Natural selection has 0 C 0v 0 caribbeaquot 4 quotquotquot quot the isthmus than to keep the 2 types 0 C O o t i O O O O o Pacific 5 521953 n e separate 9 o o gammaquot a O a are isolated Caribbean 5 c O t o O O L O Pacific 6 E n Caribbean 6 11714 11714 a 34 En 35 Li Li Sympatric spec1ation Sympatric spec1ation I Apple les I Genetically they are Lay eggs in apples very very similar to Maggots eat the Hawthorn ies apples But they are distinct Only found in North America I But in places Where they cooccur rarely I Apples have only been mate with each other in North America for 300 years I Prezygotic barrier 11714 11714 111014 o 36 o o 3391 Sympatric spec1at10n Sympatric spec1at10n 60 40 Apple flles 5223323 I Discrimination between scents is genetic I233 Hybrids can t identify either fruit 60 quot 40 lDisruptive selection for host a immigrate prezygotic barrier 5223355 that y to scent o n 203 Apple Hawthom Both No WWIWW scent scent scents scents 4 38 39 Sympatric speciation Sympatric speciation w fruh39q Humorquot Flulno IA host shift led to a new species I Common mechanism Millions of insect species many of them specialists on specific plants mun quotmu 3 E S I E W l 2 u S O 11714 11714 111014 H 3 U Sympatric speciation Diplold pamnt 2n Tolnplold parent an I ls l I Speciation by mutation Huplold gnmolos n Dlplold gametes 2 no Changes in chromosome number Iquot 9 I 1 THpIoId zygote 3n Most commonly seen 39 in plants 11714 H 3 U Sympatric speciation I Speciation by mutation Changes in chromosome number Most commonly seen in plants 11714 H 3 U Sympatric speciation I Why so common in plants Plants can reproduce vegetatively Plants can self fertilize 11714 43 H 3 U Sympatric speciation b An allopolyploid species that formed recently One of the dlplold species New tekraplold species introduced to North America resulting from allopolyploidy I 3 weedy Tragapagon dublus Tragopagan mirus Tragopogon spp introduced to western USA in early 1900s I 2 new tetraploid species found in 1950 11714 10 111014 Phylogenetic trees m m 4 IO 9 Vmw m 39 I I I I I I I I I I I I we Ch 28 Phylogenies and A F W f the history of life mm 11714 11714 47 Phylogenetic trees Phylogenetic trees Phytogenedc ee of Lite lBranch population or species over time acted Archae Eucaryou lNode where 2 branches diverge point of last common ancestor lTip end of the branch representing the current species or the final genotype of an extinct species 11714 11714 11 111014 3 o 3 Phylogenet1c trees Phylogenet1c trees Taxon 1 Outgroup Common chimp Australopithecus Taxon 2 0A afarensis Root 0 A 3 D Sister taxa Paranthmpus Taxon 3 I robustus Branch l O B Comrnon 4 ancestor of eraqthmpus z Taxon 4 chimps and se39 3 NOdel hominins the 539 red branChes Homo erectus a Polytomy more than Taxon 5 one branch emerging H 3 39 omo from one nocje Common neanderthalensis a Taxon 6 ancestor of a Paranthropus Home Tip 139quot and Homo sapiens 11714 11714 C CH u u Th1s 1sn t how 1t works Phylogenet1c trees Common chimp if 2amp17275 quot I Branch length can Paganrropus indicate from T5232 5mm g d1vergence chimps and a 39 hominins the g quot5 39 quotquotquot Home a I Each group has I 39 ggrgenhalansis g m 39 pmmpus Hm 3 amount of time if and Homo sa ians they re not ext1nct 11714 11714 12 111014 1 Phylogenetic trees Common chimp Australopithecus nsis hummus I There are alternate hempquot 2 ways to draw this tree chimps and 3956 g hominins the g red branches Homo erectus E I ggggmm nodes are defining the Paranthmpus Home and Homo sapisns suamn 11714 1 Phylogenetic trees a c UI HIO d it 065 LQGUN HUQU N U UIOM 53 11714 I Phylogenetic trees IHovv are phylogenetic trees made IClosely related taxa are more similar to each other Phenetic approach I use statistics to describe overall similarity between groups I genetic distances Cladistic approach I group by shared characteristics 11714 1 Phylogenetic trees Derived sequence the C in the third position Ancestral 2 sequence Iquot AAC GCT ACT B Spec39es 1 Monophyletic quot Species 2 grouP r AAA GCT ACT 0 A 1 39 s 39 3 E pec39es Monophyletic Species4 grouD Most recent common ancestor before populations split 11714 13 111014 5392 Phylogenetic trees Homologous traits I How can you tell if a trait is homologous or 9 IMonophyletic groups are defined by not39 synapomorphy Is the trait found in all the descendants from the last common ancestor tra1t unique to that group trait in the last common ancestor to that group I HOX genes R 1 t ISometimes called homologous traits egu a Cry Found in Drosophila and vertebrates last common ancestor 600 700 million years ago 11714 11714 Homologous traits Phylogenetic trees Minnow letv y Nut complex quotquot quot quot39 39quot quotquot quotquotquot M IProblem to look out for homoplasy EIZYQV 39 Z quot 2 groups may share a trait but the trait may not 33 X f have existed in the last common ancestor 5n39wm quotWW I Wings birds bats insects quot15212312 I Eyes squids vertebrates jellyfish 33117 339 Convergent evolution 11714 11714 14 4 o 60 Convergent evolution 11714 111014 q Phylogenetic trees IBest approach use multiple traits not just one lParsimony relationship that requires the fewest of changes is most likely 11714 q Phylogenetic trees a Two changes AAA GCT AAA GCT AL MC GOT AAC GCT A AAA GGT b Four changes AAA GCT A c AAc GCT cG IIIIII Illl 53T ATE AAc GCT cic AAA GGT AAA GCT 11714 q Phylogenetic trees 63 lBest approach use multiple traits not just one lParsimony relationship that requires the fewest of changes is most likely lBut what happens if your traits don t give you the same answer 11714 15 111014 H Phylogenetic trees a The astragalus is a synapomorphy that identi es artiodactyls as a monophyletic group Whale ARTIOUACIVLS Camel Peccary R Gain of pulley shaped astragalus Pie in Astragalus M ankle bone Deer K I Cow 39 l 0 am Flumr mme w H U Phylogenetic trees I c Date on the presence and absence of SINE genes support the close relationship between whales and hippos Local 23466TDOIOIIIZIGMIEIOWIBION cow H 39 n o 0 Fr I I I I I II I I I I 39 v Door 39 w o I n I I I I I I I I I Whan I I I r 7 I 39I I it u u r I i I Fig U I o u u r L i L v r i I I 1 Poccery 39 39 39 quot quot 39 39 I I Camel o D o I n J L I v r over by l Genetic data suggests Whales and hippos are close relatives 1 1 7 14 H E 3 u Phylogenetic trees b H whales are related to hippos than two changes occun39ed in the astragalus ARYIODACTVLS Camel N Galn ol pulley l shaped aslragalus Peccary M Whale w Loss at pulley shaped astragalus Deer L 5 I Cow I r 1 011m FunmaEm mm IVL 1 1 7 14 E 67 Making phylogenetic trees The Cladisticules Tanya Bobby Jason 16 111014 q Cladisticule morphology Horn Antenna Head j Thorax Abdomen 11714 4 Making phylogenetic trees 70 4 Making phylogenetic trees I Hints 1 Joe is an outgroup I Outgroup group that we already know is the most distantly related I Joe will be on a branch all by himself all the others will share a more recent common ancestor 1 For coding make Joe equal the 0 form 11714 Head fused to Horns thorax yes absent 0 0 no 1 present 1 Joe 0 0 April 1 1 Mike 1 0 71 Fossils a Intact fossil pollen I History of life on earth 02ml PNm r l Mann l39r 11714 17 111014 Fossils I History of life on earth 3912 b Compression fossil leaf 39 gt7 3 11114 Fossils c Cast fossil bark I History of life on earth Dam Fauna Emmy In 13 11114 Fossils I History of life on earth d Permineralized fossil trunk ohm Fumrv imam Im 14 11114 Fossils IKeys for fossil formation 1 Slow decomposition Rapid burial IRare to have both these conditions 3915 11114 18 111014 76 77 Limitations of the fossil record Benefits of the fossil record 1 Habitat bias 239 TaxonomiCtissue bias lWe can sort the history of life on earth by 3 Temporal bias age 4 Abundance bias 11714 11714 quot39 m tll WW gc 39 4 IHHu Iiiw39 11714 f t Ch 28 Bacteria and 32 1 Archaea 13 s x 39 quotMlflu m 11714 19 Biodiversity C v Common ancestor of all species living today Archaea Eukarya I 3 kingdoms Bacteria Archaea Eukarya 87 11714 111014 88 Biodiversity IAbundance of bacteria and archaea 1 000000000 bacteria gram of soil 100000000 of Group 1 archaea in 1 ml of seawater Found over 1 km below the Earth s surface Dominant life form by volume nutrient usage 90 of N I5000 10000 described species IUndescribed 107 108 109 11714 Morphological diversity I Size range by volume 015 um3 200000000 um3 I Shapes rods spheres filaments spirals I Motility agella for swimming gliding immobile a Size varies Most bacteria are about 1 pm in diamele Smallest v391youunnu nu ll l39 Largest TIHLHH Hith umymny3 11714 How do they get their energy I More diverse than eukaryotes 6 mechanisms vs 2 b Hosts for chemoaulotrophic bacteria 11714 20 111014 How do they get energy cum1w mu 4 l Six General Methods lo Obtaining Energy and ubonIrbon Bonds SountolEuInUw WHAT Souvteol mute synthesb 39 mm 139 w Vm a a ohmvluorglnx commands quotu39 m q39v39 quotrm mqu u u H 39 wzzw 31m 5quot w 1mm r m 4vmv m H39 quotill1111 11714 Pyrolobus fumarii 11714 Tube worms I 4 mlong I No eyes no mouth no stomach I Live around deep sea vents no light for photosynthesis 11714 Symbiosismooch off microorganisms ISome bacteria and archeae can get energy chemically from sulfur compounds 1 e HZS ITube worms take up 02 HZS symbiotic bacteria convert it to S H20 energy IThis energy supports the tube worms everything else in this community 11714 21 111014 Desulforudis audaxviator Its genome indicates a motile sporulating sulfate reducing chemoautotrophic thermophile that can x its own nitrogen and carbonquot Chivian et al 2008 Science 322275278 11714 pyta u 1 II n n I 11 I 39 39ui39ti 39 b394 11714 Mai15 lw39 nu AI 4 How do bacteria affect us I Microbiome I Our cells are outnumbered 101 11714 4 How do bacteria affect us I Digestive tracts are full of bacteria I In cows 1 50000000000 drop I Needed to digest cellulose 11714 22 111014 Ell 100 Where do gut ora come from 11714 11714 101 2quot How do bacteria affect us I Drosophila prefer to mate with individuals who have the same bacteria in their guts III fed the same diets I Treat with antibiotics preference goes away I Do humans prefer mates with similar gut ora 11714 23
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