intro to biology week 12 of notes
intro to biology week 12 of notes BIOL-L 105
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This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelyn Scott on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL-L 105 at Indiana University taught by T.J. Sullivan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
112114 Ch 30 Green Algae and Land Plants 112114 Why study plants lWithout plants life on Earth doesn t exist a Primary producers I Trap energy from the sun for themselves herbivores carnivores 112114 Why study plants 8 Plants were domesticated at an array of locations b Artificial selection changes the traits of domesticated species 112114 3 Why study plants 112114 112114 Why study plants mm in I Some Drugs Derived from Land Plants Compound 50m M39un Hclhma39 lane at nun l an I 211le Fonz cam an x Llll 39l VUCCH F39 31 Hum www um m mm r ux 5 run Analu w lun quotcla alvuldi w a39w 5 3 39nr NW U UVquot wg nLJIE an 1 1 mama Pmr 39rlIrL raz39 arrwl Hmr ruef c39lu39 lvullrc W uub U 1P39Ilr v Lolwlumulul 52 l ml cl 339 411 m VIlemnwu Il lll m39ll nl H I U Themes in plant evolution Ghucophym m P In u no Rnoaopnym 1m l qlgt7 BREE ruins um um Ulvonhywac Illlvrl lhylrquotgt 0 g 39 chlomnhyll a h 4 and lcalolen Champhycoao luxumworlil ommon ancestor n Junk mm mm PUIIS lo all amen plums Mopallcwhwa lvrrh mm Mwhm mm Amhooemplm Mm VASWUH PUIIS Away In me on Lulu H1 99039quot SEEDLESS PLAINS Aidmlm Lycophyta yl u Fiilolophyta wmj lnnw 7 Eunqun I Etuotophyta lluvam lay I quot 39 MT 4 Vasculalllssw Ptarmiopnym H5 m SEED PLANTS IIIS39CIIS Cycndaphyu l l m Glnkgaonym lgnkgo Redwood umuo lullmu 4 Finophlm mm a u 59quot Gmlophyla W A lw quotBIOSPEIMS Anlbc phyla lunqlotnnm39w Green algae Themes in plant evolution I Contain chloroplasts like all plants E I Several key I Aquatic or at least Synapomorphies huge Very Wet changes in the fossil l enwronments 1cm record when they 7 I The oldest plants Colfoihaezopltlycfae Chiraphycrfaf occur 112114 l3 Themes in plant evolution H I U Themes in plant evolution I Moving from water to land Mos mule halogen Fm evidence innovalioos Bolh mland dry envuonmonu I mm blankeled w h green plants lor 39 39 Diversi cation oi owering plants plants olkmd plants Mama 1 cuticle noons vascuhv tissue cod lovminq sporanga In loam swamps AnaInervmu mhunmml nsmya 416 359 m 145 Prvuul 7 MOVing to land Reproducing in dry conditions 112114 112114 H I U Themes in plant evolution H I U Themes in plant evolution I Why is land better I Cuticles and stomata than water More light 7 More 002 7 Cuticles I Waxy layer on the surface of leaves uuuuuuuuuu M mu run s I Prevents water loss I Why is land worse than due to evaporation KW water Water is rarer Need adaptations for conservation 112114 112114 112114 17 I Themes in plant evolution Themes in plant evolution Cubcle Ia um t I Cut1cles and stomata 239 0 SM L Im fM 83 5 I Cut1cles and stomata M Stomata have none that aim was exchange in photosynthonc tissues photosynthetic calls Cuticles cwcw Stomata I Waxy layer on the I Openings to allow Nquot surface of leaves 39 W for gas exchange Gurucolls I Prevents water loss I Can be opened 4 due to evaporation closed 112114 112114 Themes in plant evolution Themes in Plant eV 1uti n sum Am Ulvcphy e I Preserving water Cuticles and stomata I Moving getting water Upright growth growing off the ground sinus VASCULAR ruins 5m 5c Uu u w I Competition for space and light n 3 5mm rum Important traits 1 Vascular tissue 2 Rigid structures 112114 112114 112114 I Transporting water circulatory system a Simple wulor b Firs vascular tissue to Trachaids d Vossol olemonls conducllng cells V Ends have pill secondary cell wall Inside 39 Erma have gaps V through prlmnry and gt secondary call walk all Primary wall with cellulose Secondary will wllh ligm39n Prlmary wall Primary wall Primary wall mm oollulou wilh cellulose with cellulose ngnin Secondary wall wllh bgnlnl Lignin complex polymer very strong Helps form vascular tissue and supporting 39 Variation in reproduction II was unoplmos Colmnutea Slonoworls n Sample gamelangla era rawmm Imamquot rum W mlquot learwarl Masses h K a h Nomwons m sums quot50qu runs a n Lycopnm m 3 mamsum whlsklems 39 Honemils Swrophyle amunaled Ill welt rem sum mm IVIIDSPEIIS Cycada smna unnasvn snml alas quotI Plnusalal Nulamspnry pollzm mas nnmuphmg Animsrums o flowlrs nun tissue 12 I 2 23 Variation in reproduction Variation in reproduction Haploidn 05 s 331 Mr I Diploid 2n IAlternation of generations 1 spogsm 2 1 SporothteS 3n Haploid and diploid stages 333333 pr dues Spores by 375233 meIOSIS Hap101d stage can be more than Just a gamete f39 39 quotquot 3 352quot quot z m 33 65 2 Spores divide by IVar1ation 1n the amount of the Me cycle 1 77 w 099 mitosis form spent 1n each stage PERTumquot gametophytes 1n 112114 Variation in reproduction I Haploid n I Diplnid 2n 0 039 056 In 9 1 quvs Spores n Gametophyte lticellular phyte mu 2quot lmultlcellular haploud diploid M39TOSIS 5 3 77quot quot33 0 c K Zygote Gametes 6 4b 5 m a 306 3 04 s t FER rILIzATIoN Gametophytes 1n produce gametes by mitosis Gametes fuse to form diploid zygote Zygote divides by mitosis to form sporophyte 2n 112114 I Mosses 12000 species Abundant in wet habitats Forms peat I Store 400 billion tons of C underground Gametophyte dominant plants a Sphagnum moss is abundant in northern wet habitats 112114 Rm VHFJ ALGAE Ulvophylaa coleochae es ll Simple gametangia egg rrlcnllon on pamnl quotll Ihlckwallod spams complex gamalangia embryo mlcnllon allemalion oi qcncmhons I I i Sporophyte dnminaled lile cycle I Hulcmspory polr suds er mm M n v III Wu runs lecrwcrls Masses Homworls SEEBLESS VASCIIAI PUIIS 7 LYCODhY cS Whlsk ems Horsemils Redwoods Firms at 31 G nelophytes Angiosporms Stonewons SlIV ld GIN SIKV39Id HV39II39IGSVA SIIV M 033 112114 I Ferns 12000 species Seedless vascular plants Vascular tissue allows for larger sizes Need fairly wet habitats Sporophyte dominant plants lypodium vulgare 112114 112114 Rm llullv U Inn was Fern l1fe cycle Coleochsetes I Stonewons Simple gamelangia 99 quotmmquot Innuswun runs an parequot meon Masses b chs Sporophyto is lawn and long lived but when young depends on qunotophyto for nuln39lion 39lquot Homwons MITOSIS Thickwulud spams complex gamelangia 9 mm Mm SEEDLESS quotscum runs in I LWODHY OS 095 aquot W alternahon oi M Emspw e by m quncrallons m Whisk ferns produced in sparnot I Hmetails gt Sparonnytevdnminated lile cycle 3 Fem g 1 Sportmm g Wt quotmums 3 Cycads g W 2m 39 39 l2quot Ginkgo E Mslum m 5 WW 7 quot FERTILIZA NON Egg muop Rmmd m u e ummium in amount at al 3 w 539 m Pines M al E Halamspory pollen seeds Gnelophytes ANGIOSPEIIS UH Angiospcrms Flowers lruit DVllIIINI IIIAD II l39l 32 Sporophyte dominant plants Seed Seed plants plants I2 major adaptations 2 different gametophytes male and female I Make the male gametophyte mobile pollen Embryo gram I Pollen resists desiccation Nutritive tissue I Very light very mobile Embryo dispersal seeds Protective coat I Protective coat for the seed r fll39rIre u 112114 112114 112114 Gymnosperms I Naked seeds a Cones that produce b Cones that produce macrosporangia and eggs microsporangia and pollen Picea abies Picea abies I Pines spruces firs I Redwoods Junipers Yews I Common characteristics Cones needlelike Gymnosperms IGymnosperms first show up in the fossil record 299 mya ISeeds allowed them to move into dry habitats Most major morpholothl Fin evidence innovations 04 land plants slomam Extensive Both ml and dry anvuvonmcnls culicle spores ocular isme coulmminn blanheled with green planls tor speranga la loam swamps he lira lune Diversi cation oi owering plants Cmbar nmlr Lyrmh39lm nnn rancidi 1m JMHN quotnnrwurnvw u mvnm Anqmapnvms mummy 4quotva Lu u 475 run 416 359 299 145 Preunl leaves 112114 112114 Rm ulrun E II ALGAE Ulvophylaa Bristlecone pine 5063 years old Norway spruce 9550 years old clonal Krrdowsky 112114 coleochae es Stoneworls Simple gamelangia egg rrlcnllon IIIquotS llll PLAle on pamn LI vcrworls Masses IIH Inlckvullod spams Homwor s complex gamalangia embryo mlcnllon allemalion at qcncrahons SEEDLESS VASCUIJI PLIIIS chonhncs Helerospoly Whlsk ems I Horsemils Sporophyte dnminaled lile cycle Ferns IVIIOSPIII Cycada SlIV ld GIN Ginkgo SIKV39ld HV39II39IGSVA Redwoods at 3 g Pines at al Hulcmspory polr suds SIIV M 0335 G nelophytes ANGIOSPERMS Angiosporms un Flmrers lm39n rvly mm Mn 11 v 112114 112114 Flowering plants IAngiosperms owering plants covered seeds l250000 described species Most diverse group of land plants IKey adaptations ower retention of the female gametophyte inside the ovary Protection 112114 Flowering plants 112114 112114 112114 112114 43 H I U Flowering plants MITOSIS 7 3 3 13 quot quot Microwave W Pollen 9min Ann Vonn pollen mm mm malophyta MIYOSIS 7 Female 9quotan Meganpore Moemanila a mum In mum In ovum in ovary Mum swan an i 47quot 21 forrm M u vo f quotWWquot quotquot0quot 3quot am In and J Embryo 2n I mags Zyoom 2139 Dumping womohm via wind 01 animals 112114 H I U Flowering plants I Secondary benefit to owers animal pollination I Wind works as a pollinator but it s pretty random nondirectional I Get animals to do your work for you Animals are directed can take pollen exactly where it needs to go I Natural selection favors Flowers that attract animals Flowers that reward animals Species specific interactions 112114 H I U Flowering plants I Promoting species specific interactions f Scent 112114 H I U Flowering plants I Promoting species specific interactions Colorpatterns to draw them to the pollen But insects don t necessarily see the same way we do l 2 112114 10 112114 Flowering plants I Promoting species specific interactions Flower shape 47 112114 Columbines Aqujlegja 112114 I Bumblebee visiting a columbine ower 112114 Hummingbird visiting a columbine 112114 11 112114 dig Hawkmoth showing long proboscis 112114 Flowering plants I Keeping the female gametophyte inside the ovary also allows for the evolution of fruit I Fruit derived from ovary tissue contains seeds 112114 Flowering plants I Fruits promote seed dispersal by animals I What are the advantages 112114 Ch 3335 Animals 112114 12 112114 H I Animals lWhat are animals H ll Taxonomic diversity 7 TABiiEZJ An Overview of n Anlmal Phyla G39r39mlap and canon m Number Heterotro hs yum o n ma pm p I 1392 lliamnansmups ponpr a 1mm I Only mult1cellular group to mgest the1r food species 1 a a a Lllidmu 10000 More pnder the1r own power at some pomt 1n 7 10 50 million total the1r 11fe Cycle tenophola fumbleljes mo Acoelomovpha ArnEIolrazhm39ms 10 Neurons except sponges Muscle cells 112114 112114 CH 57 E Evolut1onary h1story Ammal body plans dorsa posterior E anterior we radial symmetry bilateral symmetry a b 112114 112114 13 112114 4 4 Morphology T1ssues in embryos I Comparative morphology 1 Origin elaboration of tissues Origin elaboration of the nervous system 39 2 layers 111910131353 Ectoderm including brain ectoderm outside Evolution of a uid filled body cavity endoderm inside 21 Variation in events in early development protostome vs deuterostome 41 41 D1ploblasts Cnidarians a Cnidaria include b Ctenophora are the jellyfish corals and comb jellies sea pens shown I 2 basic body forms Polyp Medusa I Sometime both Portuguese manof war 112114 112114 14 112114 Tissues in embryos I 3 layers triploblasts Ectoderm source of skin and nervous system Endoderm origin of lining of the digestive tract Mesoderm origin of circulatory system muscles organs etc 112114 Morphology I Comparative morphology Origin elaboration of tissues Origin elaboration of the nervous system including brain Evolution of a uid filled body cavity Variation in events in early development protostome vs deuterostome 112114 Nervous systems a Nerve net diffuse neurons in hydra I 2 types of nervous systems I Nerve net All nerves are the same Associated with animals that have radial symmetry Sense environment in all directions 112114 Nervous systems b Central nervous system clustered neurons in earthworm I Central nervous system Some neurons are clustered into ganglia associated with animals that have bilateral symmetry Ganglia Neurons are concentrated in one spot Cephalization 112114 15 112114 Morphology Body cavities I Comparative morphology I Coelom Origin elaboration of tissues Internal caVitY Origin elaboration of the nervous system Fluidfilled including brain Container for circulation Evolution of a uid filled body cavity Space for organs to move independently of each Variation in events in early development other protostome vs deuterostome I think heart and lungs Morphology Early development I Comparative morphology 0 Origin elaboration of tissues l99 o of animals are bilaterally symmetrical tri loblasts Origin elaboration of the nervous system p iIICluding brain IWe can separate these into 2 groups Evolution of a uid filled body cavity Protosomes rstmouth Variation in events in early development Deuterostomes secondmouth protostome vs deuterostome 112114 112114 16 112114 71 72 Early development Early development a Gastrulation formation of gut and embryonic tissue layers a The tubewithin a tube body plan in an earthworm Protostomes Deuterostomes I General body plan of tag Vgg iemmd 323323 swimmer POre becomes mouth Pom becomes anus bilaterally symmetric om mesoderm Mouth l triploblast protostome 3 or a bilaterally quot Longitudinal symmetric triploblast to gee 390quot deuterostome Anus J t I Tubewithin a tube 112114 112114 73 74 Tube within a tube b Many animal phyla have wormlike bodies I39 I Worms are the most basic form of this design w Ribbon wrm Nee I More complex animals are tubes within tubes with legs Arrow worm Chaetognatha 112114 Variable characteristics in animals ISolving the same problem in different ways 1 Sensing the environment 2 Eating 3 Moving 4 Reproducing 112114 17 112114 In 75 In 76 Var1able character1st1cs 1n ammals Var1able character1st1cs 1n ammals b Sponges are multicelluiar sessile animals I Sensory organs t 39 39 Cephalization I Feedmg styles 9 V 7 1mm Concentrating the I Suspension feeders sng gafngiyntgferx quot nervous system filter feeders x 1 brain mOUths Filter particles out of sensory organs in r I r n the environment nmmt one 39 39 intosponge r In 77 In 78 Variable characteristics in animals Variable characteristics in animals a Earthworms Annelida eat organic a Butter ies have an extensible material within soil and detritus such as leaves on the surface of soil hOHOW pl ObOSCIS I Feeding styles I Feedlng styles I Fluid feeders I Deposit feeders Nectar plant sap blood Detritivores 112114 112114 18 112114 Iquot I l Variable characteristics in animals I Feeding styles I Mass feeders Bring in chunks of food 112114 I H Variable characteristics in animals I Herbivores Eat plant material I Carnivores Eat animals I Omnivores Eat plants and animals I Detritivores Eat dead things b Wolves Chordata chase prey 112114 I H Adaptations for eating b Sheep ticks pierce skin a Leafcutter ants cut leaves 112114 Adaptations for eating David Grimm 112114 19 112114 Variable characteristics in animals b Lice Arthropoda are ectoparasites I Subclassifications 5 5 piercing 39 mouthpans I Predators I V l 39 Claws attacli prey 9 17 r 7 r to skin or hair I Parasites Harvest nutrients without killing 112114 Variable characteristics in animals b Crabs Arthropoda have jointed limbs I Movement Finding food escaping predators dispersing finding mates Jointed and unjointed limbs 112114 Variable characteristics in animals b Sea urchins Echinodermata have tube feet I Movement Finding food escaping predators dispersing finding mates Jointed and unjointed limbs 112114 Adaptations for moving a Walking running and jumping c Gliding and crawling Stripes are waves of muscle contraction f Jointed 112114 20 112114 839 q Adaptations for moving 7 mantle lls wlth water t Water is forced out through siph oooo nimal moves 112114 in Variable characteristics in animals I Mode of reproduction Asexual vs sexual 1 Viviparous vs oviparous livebearing vs egg laying Internal vs external fertilization 112114 it Variable characteristics in animals 3 Internal fertilization in damsel ies b External fertilization in giant clams quot Male 112114 it Variable characteristics in animals I Getting older Metamorphosis 1 Divergent larval and adult forms I W Mumbelong Monmou 112114 21 112114 H Variable characteristics in animals a Aphid Hemimetabolous metamorphosis I Incomplete metamorphosis 39 Juvenile nymph form are small adults 39 39 Shed exoskeleton as they grow Variable characteristics in animals I gl us metamorphosis metamorphosis 39 Divergent larval and adult forms 39 Minimizes competition between adults and offspring 39 Very common in insects 112114 112114 V 1 2 Protosome animals Protosome animals Majorprotostomephyla muse ha Mopeds 39 IVery species rich group Platyhelminlhes 9 65 Nematoda Amen W V o I Insects Monusca mlamalsymmwy Mouusca E V Platyhelminthes quotquot39 quot39Equot3939som 2 Annelida quotmama V I I I A w IMany spec1es have h1gh abundances h i vnebaes c 4 WWW 39 18 million beetles acre in English pasture 3 39 1000000000000000 ants 112114 112114 22 112114 H Protosome animals a Echiurans spoon worms Mo39uth Prbbpscis I Platyhelminthes Flatworms I Live in the small intestine I Adult females produce 200000 eggs day I Fertilized eggs can live 18 days several weeks 112114 hooks I Ba51c body plans arefi f ed In SUCK l Worms x Lmueus ln the gutter of the Coelom as proboscis and hydrostatic skeleton then moved to the mouth by cilia 1 cm a Tapeworm X20 b Blood fluke X10 112114 112114 H z H 2 Ascans Ascans 112114 23 112114 3 U Protosome animals a Anhropod body plan external View I Basic body plans Arthropods I Segmented bodies Tagmata I Exoskeletons I Movement by H Arthropods 1 Jointed appendages hollow tubes that are moved by muscles Exoskeleton Jointed limbs Segmented body 7 the skeleton like 15333133 y levers Arthropods Arthropods 2 Exoskeleton w rigid structure chitin w protection attachment point for muscles prevent desiccation w as individuals growth they have to shed their exoskeleton molting 112114 3 Respiratory systems gills in the water air tubes or book lungs on the land 4 Metamorphosis juveniles eat different foods less competition with adults 112114 24 112114 103 q Arthropods 5 Segmentation I 1 body is made of repeating units 6 Welldeveloped q Arthopods I Insects Coleoptera I Beetles nervous system I 1 brain and ventral nerve I 350 000 spp cord s o I 1 many have well r 20 as Of known developed senses spec1es I 1 complex behaviors and communication skills 112114 112114 41F 41F Arthopods Arthropods I Insects Lepidoptera I Butter ies and moths 180000 spp 112114 I Insects Diptera I Flies mosquitoes gnats I 120000 spp Dlputa39 9 Rev 112114 25 112114 m Arthropods Huronulna I Insects Hymenoptera I Ants bees wasps 112114 Arthropods Chelicerata I Arachnids I Spiders scorpions ticks I 8 legs venomous 112114 Arthropods crustaceans I Aquatic barnacles shrimp lobsters crabs crayfish I Terrestrial pillbugs 112114 EE Japanese spider crab 112114 26 112114 Fairy wasps Giant Weta 113 Deuterostomes l mllrm Clmlmm ANIMALSC thliophom Aimulmlmrplm Pumasmmis llolllnm Pmyzmlmmlm Anuvluu I Mullusc Bilateral symmetry N mmlodu I Mouthsecond animals Al39lhru od I cm Jnm DEVYEIOSYDMES Echinodermala Hemlchordala Xenoturbellida Chordata mama erlahmlebd I 4 phyla 4912 Echinoderms I Spinyskin I 7000 spp I As larva have bilateral symmetry as adults have radial symmetry a Echinoderm larvae are bilaterally symmetric 4912 27 112114 I Echinoderms I Exoskeleton covered by a thin epidermal layer of CaC03 I Water vascular system Water can move into out of the body Creates a hydrostatic skeleton that can move the tube feet a Echinoderms have a water vascular system 4912 1 Echinoderms 117 a Sea star podia adhere to bivalve shells and pull them apart b Feather star podia trap particles during suspension feeding I Variation in feeding behaviors 4912 1 Echinoderms I Asteroidea Sea stars I 1700 spp I 5 arms I Range from 1 cm to l m across I Predators and scavengers Crossaster papposus 4912 1 Echinoderms I Mostly sexual reproduction Crossaster papposus At least 1 arm is full of gametes millions female I Some hold fertilized eggs on their bodies I Larva disperse in the plankton 4912 28 112114 Echinoderms a 863 quotmmquot Lytechinus variegatus I Echinoidea Sea Echinoderms urchins l Move by crawling I 800 spp I Sexually reproducing 133133 39 with external I Herbivores can wipe quot fertilization out kelp beds 4912 4912 Deuterostomes Chordates ANIMAlS Ctenorzhom jjjj rquot39 I Defining features synapomorphies Bilateral symmetrl OHH A dorsal hollow nerve cord Supportive but exible rod called the nlunlosE 1dermala quotem39mm a A muscular postanal tail Xenolurbellida 317333 amp nehr 1 4912 4912 29 112114 124 125 Vertebrates Vertebrates I Vertebrates a Mammals birds fish 32273213 m 39 39 snif zzdpostanal tail 39 c Vertebrates quotT l 2 synapomorphIes I Dorsal nerve cord s a Column of cartilagebones along the dorsal side becomes the spinal 0f the cord Crofss sgction m 0 0 em ryo D Cranium skull case for the bra1n I pharyngeal pouches E m gill slits in aquatic vertebrates become gill in fish vestigial in terrestrial animals 4912 4912 126 Vertebrates I Pharyngeal gill slits I Notochord cells lead to 3212 quotW quot Muscular postanal tail c Vertebrates vertebrae ribs and m Lots of fish muscles in the back A r O J l i a and wall Cross section Embryo of embryo I Tails degenerate in 3333255332323132333 species without tails 4912 4912 3O 112114 I I Vertebrates Amphibians Rayfinned fishes Snakes lizards I 2 main groups crocodnes 27000 species each Rayfinned fishes Bards Tetrapods Sharks rays skates Hagfish Iarnpreys 4912 I Vertebrates key adaptions a Jawless Gill arches vertebrate I I I A I I I Jaw Mouth 39 Allows for biting b Intermediate form basal Gull arches I Most likely modified gill arches gnathostomes j 3 J c Fossil shark aw Gill arches I Provided many new diet options Jaw 4912 130 I Vertebrates key adaptions I Tetrapod limb I Allowed for water gt land I Lung fish can live out of water for short periods of time eshy ns I Use their limbs to walk short distances 4912 I Vertebrates key adaptions 131 I Feathers and ight I Birds amp dinosaurs for feathers I Flight has evolved multiple times in tetrapods Pterosaurs bats birds 4912 31 112114 Cu 132 CH 133 Vertebrates key adaptions Vertebrates key adaptions I Amniotic egg I Birds have special 7 V w Reptiles birds 2 quotaquot wssaseo ag adaptions for ight if mammals Light hollow bones quot 1 r 7 I Several membrane Keel on sternum 32210 We layers Wm Endothermic 23232 Vquot Brim I Provide nutrients for 3333 muscles always ETESfZEEE developing embryos quot m M I h endothermic Warm and ready for I Offspring can be larger lght more independent at birth 4912 4912 Ell 134 CH 135 Vertebrates key adaptions Primates I Placenta 1 I Key CharaCters b Anthropoids include New World monkeys Same membrane mother s mew 7 Hands and feet Old World monkeys gibbons and gareat Apes form but stays in the can grasp 39 mother 3 gyms Flattened nails not Allows for viviparity IS Claws Relatively large I Advantages brains Embryos are Color vision protected 39 J Complex social EmbrYOS are interactions and portable parental care 4912 4912 32 112114 Primates I 2 groups 39 39 Prosimians I Lemurs lorises 39 39 Anthropoids I Monkeys gibbons great apes 5quot mu swamIan nammuv 136 4912 Primates I Great apes hominids 39 Larger bodies long arms short legs no tails I Most are ground dwelling 39 Variation in walking styles 39 Hominins are bipedal ISMquot Inl l MIIIUN nmomnv 137 4912 33
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