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ANTH 320 Notes: 3/1/16-3/3/16

by: Hadley Ashford

ANTH 320 Notes: 3/1/16-3/3/16 ANTH 320

Hadley Ashford
GPA 3.776

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About this Document

These notes cover chapters 1-2 and 4-5 from Ferguson
Anthropology of Development
R. Colloredo-Mansfeld
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 320 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by R. Colloredo-Mansfeld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Anthropology of Development in ANTH at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
ANTH 320 Notes 3/1/16-3/3/16 3/1/16 - Benefits of messiness- What can be learned from it o Use past findings as base of next success  Ex. teacher puts old student work on wall for examples o Common tools for common needs, recycle leftovers  Ex. keep out commonly used tools on work bench o Allows creativity, ideas build on each other  Ex. all research and ideas in organized chaos on desk o Respond to surroundings  Ex. all ingredients out when cooking so can be creative - Practical reason: o Combines experience and habits in skilled execution o Unconsciously take right steps toward success- don’t have to think about it o Action= idea - “Metis” (from Scott reading) o Responding to dynamic environment- learn that way o Difficult to teach without actually doing o Need for hands on experience - Modernization: ideology of break with past to create something completely new o Rejects practical reason - Development and growth: o Technology increases human production o Knowledge systems available in all sectors o Apply knowledge to create growth - Scott says development can only be achieved with practical reason o Experience necessary o Match tools to task o Imagination necessary o Respond to surrounding environment - Ferguson says failure of development happens when state intervention forces one way of progress - State power makes illegible understandable o Ex. give first and last names, don’t recognize nicknames o Simplification to better implement control o Ignore history and experience of how people actually live their lives - Scott’s view of modernist state: o Societal simplification  Classification  Legibility  Eliminate culture and uniqueness o Science and technology to solve problems o Back solutions to problems with force  Increased police, weapons, surveillance o Pro-state civil society: difficult to speak against state, opposition of state equated to opposition of progress - Video of 1968 news supporting World Bank Report (of Lesotho) o Matches World Bank perspective of Lesotho - Ferguson asks what is role of inaccurate descriptions in World Bank development programs - Scott and Ferguson agree that state cares more about maintaining power than actual success of development projects - Developmental state (by Ferguson) o Discourse used to maintain/increase state power  Use narrative to make intervention and development seem natural  Easier to think about commodity economy  Expert language becomes commonplace o Failure of projects maintains state authority  Embedded discourse encourages community to blame themselves instead of state for development failures 3/3/16 - Lesotho: o Was once productive granary of South African (1800’s) o Ferguson disputes World Bank Report o 1930’s= decline in agricultural production and increase in migrant labor  Much work in mines o Mining careers:  Began with most men participating for short periods of time with low wages- almost like rite of passage (mid 1900’s)  1980’s: less job opportunities in Lesotho, mining career lengthens, higher wages o Farming: Ferguson refutes idea that Lesotho is primarily farming communities  Not subsistence farmers because can’t support themselves with what they grow  Migrant labor necessary for survival o Cattle raising practices:  Not raised for family consumption- only killed for ceremonies and sacrifices  Not good milk producers because don’t get enough food/nutrients  Used for plowing  Dung for fuel  Cows store wealth, don’t create wealth  Bought when cash available, only sold when desperate need for cash - Different intimate relationships with cattle: o Sudan (Nuer): present in many aspects of life o Maasai: warriors slaughter bull and drink blood to become man, use dung for house, dowry includes cows, symbiotic relationship o Ethiopia/Horn of Africa: provide cattle on market for other countries, save surpluses to ensure cattle productivity - Lesotho cattle as a development problem: o National government and international agencies want to improve standard of living  Want to increase cash earnings from farms o Issue arises when current economic practice seems irrational  Dedication to cattle that give no economic return  Drought further shows irrationality:  Community knew cattle would die  Made no effort to capitalize on investment and sell before they die - World Bank reasoning for irrationality around cattle: o Dual economies: mix of traditional and modern  Cattle example of traditional aspect  Cash economy is modern, hasn’t completely spread  Future= cattle as commodity  Present/past= too focused on prestige/kinship o Utilitarian: cattle are only possible investment  Forced to choose between rock and hard place- no other options - Bovine Mystique: o Cattle is a low market intensity product (not easily bought and sold on market) o Relationships between cattle and cash  Bridewealth: exchange of wealth/value goes to bride’s family  Bridewealth used to make marriage stick- incentive for bride to stay with new family or has to give all bridewealth back  Cattle and cash used for bridewealth  Cattle cost M400, equivalent cash value M150  Prefer to receive cash even though has less value o One-way barrier: cash can always be converted to cattle, but cattle cannot be transferred to cash unless desperate  Man with cattle: successful in mines, can provide for family and community  Man selling cattle: emergency  Man without cattle: almost certain future failure, can’t provide for family or community o Household relationships:  Many men absent, women are subsistence farmers  Household property: main cash earnings, men and women both make decisions  Men’s property: grazing animals  Complete control, women have no way in these  Women’s property: pigs, poultry, special trade goods  In control of own wages until converted into men’s property o Social uses for cattle:  Creates social connections- lend cattle to friends/family  Helps community- provides some employment and benefits (milk, wool, plowing, etc.) o Different interests in cattle:  Men: cattle as placeholder in house/community, store of wealth for hard times when no longer migrant laborer, only part of wealth they have complete control over o Women: want limited cattle for basic needs, more focus on family needs (less on prestige) o Older men: know cattle necessary for bridewealth, promote acquisition of cattle to younger generation - Bovine Mystique can be explained through social relations, personal ambitions, and economic logic o Explain cultural practice- need to explain reasoning - Should be recognized as one moral good among many o Must be justified in community for it to continue


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