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Zoology Lab Annelids

by: Dallas Bowe

Zoology Lab Annelids Bio 106-016

Dallas Bowe
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
GPA 3.76
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About this Document

These notes focus on the Phylum Annelida with functions, taxonomy and organ system properties.
Zoology Lab
Dr. Nancy Butler
Class Notes
Zoology, Biology




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dallas Bowe on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 106-016 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Nancy Butler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Zoology Lab in Biology at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.

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Date Created: 03/03/16
Zoology Lab Chapter 11 - Annelids Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Annelida (“segmented worm”)   Habitat:  o Marine, freshwater, or moist terrestrial locations   Level of organization:  o organ system   Symmetry:  o Bilateral   Size: o  <1 mm to > 3 m  Body : o Segmented body wall/coelom  o Segmented repetition with organs and body parts  o Fluid within segments creates a hydrostatic skeleton   Skeleton provides a rigid structure against muscle contraction  Complete digestive system   Closed circulatory system  o Includes: multiple pumping blood vessels, arteries, veins, and capillaries   Simple nervous system o Dorsal brain with 2 lobes o Ventral nervous cord   No respiratory system  o Diffusion across epidermal surface    Coelomates ­­ triploblastic   Protostomes  Hermaphroditic  o Do not self­fertilize  o 2 worms exchange sperm through cross­fertilization of each other’s eggs  Advantages of segmentation:  facilitates locomotion   Provides repeated elements that may be modified in different ways to perform  specialized functions relating to reproduction, feeding, locomotion, respiration or  excretion  Setae­ small hair­like bristles used for locomotion  Class and Representative  Characteristics  Animals  Polychaeta  Paired, external parapodia with multiple setae present on  (~ 10,00 species)  segments; well­differentiated head with specialized sense  Sandworms, clamworms,  organs; no clitellum; mostly dioecious; marine  tubeworms, fanworms,  scaleworms, lugworms Oligochaeta  Lack parapodia and a distinct head; few setae per segment;  (~3,000 species) clitellum present; monoecious; mostly freshwater and  Earthworms, angleworms,  terrestrial  blackworms Hirudinea  Flattened body with 33­34 segments; clitellum present (during (~ 500 species) breeding season); lack setae; lack parapodia; anterior and  Leeches  posterior suckers present; monoecious; marine, freshwater  and terrestrial  Sandworms Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Annelida  Class: Polychaeta   Marine segmented worms  o Includes: sandworms, fanworms, scalworms, lugworms, and tubeworms   Have parapodia (setae project from side flaps) o Can be modified to adapt to different habitats and lifestyles  Species in rocky environments­ leg­like parapodia for walking  Burrowing species­ digging paddle parapodia   Other species ­ short parapodia combine with peristaltic contractions to  move the worm body through mud   Parapodia also are filled with blood vessels which allow gas exchange by  increasing the surface area for diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide   Well­developed head with specialized sense organs   Feeding: o Suspension feeding: the process of stationary polychaetes using feathery feeding tentacles to filter plankton and other suspended food particles from the water.  Polychaetes build temporary burrows or permanent tubes of mud and mucous  secretions to lead this feeding lifestyle.  o Detritus feeding: the process of eating organic material that settles on the surface of muddy substrates  o Free­living predators ­ swim and scurry about in search of prey  Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Annelida  Class: Polychaeta  Genus: Nereis (sandworm)  Hide under rocks or in burrows during the day and emerge at night to search for food  Locomotion: o Slow crawling achieved by parapodia  o Rapid crawling and swimming achieved by undulation  Feeding: o Predator  Thrusts out its proboscis from the mouth with its piercing jaws and grabs  a hold of the prey  Earthworms Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Annelida  Class: Oligochaeta   Habitat: freshwater or damp soil   Lack parapodia   Rely on epithelial surface for gas exchange (diffusion)   Possess short, bristly setae on each segment   Burrowing lifestyle  Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Annelida  Class: Oligochaeta Genus: Lumbricus  Reproduction: o Each vas deferens releases sperm and seminal receptacles simultaneously  receive sperm from another earthworm during copulation  Complete digestive system advantages  o Food moves in one direction   Soil is pulled into mouth by pharynx   Soil goes through the esophagus and empties into the crop for temporary  storage  Crop empties into gizzard to breakdown soil and separate organic matter   Passes through intestine for extracellular digestion and absorption of  particles in bloodstream  The efficiency of the intestine is improved by increased absorptive surface area created by typhlosole (inward fold of the intestinal  wall)  Undigested particles are released through the anus   Closed circulatory system  o Blood contains hemoglobin that is directly dissolved into the blood plasma  o Presence of oxygen increases circulatory efficiency and allows annelids to live in  ocean floor and soil of terrestrial environments where there is an abundance of  food and little oxygen  o Blood is circulated through 5 pumping vessels o No heart o Blood passes anteriorly through the dorsal blood vessel into the 5 pumping  vessels. It is then sent to the ventral blood vessel to the brain and other body  parts.  Excretion: o Carried out by nephridia   At one end there is a nephrostome to pull metabolic waste into the  bladder section of the tube   Wastes passes through nephridiopores on the outer body wall   Coelomic fluids is reabsorbed back into the body cavity   Nervous system: o Dorsal brain with 2 small lobes at anterior end o Ventral nerve cord  No respiratory structures o Carbon dioxide and oxygen diffuse across dermal surface into and out of the  dorsal and ventral blood vessels   Reproduction: o Monoecious (hermaphroditic)  o Mating occurs outside their burrows at night in warm, moist weather.   2 worms align along their ventral surfaces, with heads positioned at  opposite directions.  Each clitellum secretes a slimy mucous, forming a cocoon.   Cocoon slide forward on worm, collecting eggs from the egg sac   Sperm discharges simultaneously and travels in the seminal receptacles   Cocoon with fertilized eggs slip on the anterior end of the worm and is  deposited by the entrance of the worm’s burrow  Eggs develop for 2­3 weeks and then new worms emerge  Internal Anatomy of Lumbricus (earthworms) Structure  Function Mouth  Ingests soil Pharynx Muscular region of digestive system specialized for pumping in soil Esophagus  Passageway between pharynx and crop Crop Thin­walled chamber where food is temporarily stored  Gizzard Thick­walled, muscular chamber where soil is mechanically ground and  usable organic materials are separated from ingestible materials  Intestine Long tube occupying the majority of the body in which nutrients are  absorbed into the bloodstream Pumping vessels Specialized, muscular branches of the dorsal blood vessel that  (“hearts”) rhythmically contract to circulate blood throughout the body  Dorsal blood  Longitudinal blood vessel that returns blood to the pumping vessels  vessel  Ventral blood  Longitudinal blood vessel that distributes blood posteriorly to the body  vessel Seminal vesicles Cream­colored, lobed organs fastened ventrally, but extending dorsally  around each side of the esophagus that store maturing sperm Testes (not  Site of sperm production  visible) Seminal  Ventrally located organs that receive sperm during copulation and store  receptacles  sperm until needed to fertilize eggs in cocoon  Ovaries Site of egg production Nephridia  Paired, excretory organs found along the lateral margins of all but the  most anterior and posterior segments; they release waste fluids out of the  worm through small pores in the body wall Septa Thin, fleshy partitions between segments  Brain  Small, bilobed structure lying dorsal to the pharynx in segments 3 and 4;  houses the majority of neutral ganglia in the worm Ventral nerve  Long, white “cord” located along the ventral surface of the body; contains  cord  large swellings of ganglia in each segment that handle the majority of  coordination without intervention of the brain Prostomium  An adaptation to keep dirt out of the mouth while burrowing Clitellum  A large band covering several segments about ⅓ of the way down the  body from the head  Used during reproduction for transferring sperm between individuals and  in secreting a cocoon that contains the fertilized egg Anus The opening through which indigestible products are released from the  digestive tract  Nephrostome A ciliated funnel that pulls coelomic fluid containing metabolic wastes into  the bladder section of the tube (excretory feature) Nephridiopores Microscopic pores on the outer body wall (excretory feature) Leeches Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Annelida Class: Hirudinea  Genus: Hirudo    Freshwater  Scavengers or prey on small, aquatic animals  Ectoparasites  o Can consume 5 ­ 10x its original body weight in blood and body fluids o Able to extract fluid more efficiently and with less tissue damage than other  methods of suctioning   Locomotion:  o Swimming or looping   Lack setae and parapodia   External rings do not correspond to the pattern of internal segmentation   Hermaphroditic  o Clitellum is only visible during breeding season  Have suckers o For feeding and attaching to hosts  Blackworm Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Annelida Class: Oligochaeta Genus: Lumbricus  Habitat:  o shallow marine ponds, marshes, and lakes in North America   Size:  o >2 inches   Small and free living   Closed circulatory system  o Dorsal blood vessel ­ contractile and circulates blood  o Ventral blood vessel ­ not contractile   Head is forages for vegetation and microorganisms while tail projects upward and bends at a right angle to break the surface tension of the water 


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