Generalist notes - Week 8
Generalist notes - Week 8 social work 3502
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by MadsSwart on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to social work 3502 at Ohio State University taught by Andrea Severson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Generalist Practice in Social Work at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Social Work Generalist Practice Week 8 - Working on First 50 minute assessment - Group Work - Planning and Contracting - Service Contract: o Background to contract (2-3 sentences) o Presenting concern or problem (2-3 sentences) o Goals for intervention (at least one goal) o Objectives for intervention (at least 2 objectives) o Client tasks (at least 3) o Worker tasks (at least 2) o Methods used to monitor progress (2-3 sentences) o Procedure for renegotiation of contract (2-3 sentences) o Other details and clarification of contract o Signatures of both client and social worker - Planning and contracting o Planning is the bridge between assessment and intervention o Effective planning places a special demand on the creativity of the social worker and the willingness of the client to consider alternative courses of action o Each possible option must be evaluated in an effort to predict its probable impact and effectiveness, identify possible unintended consequences, determine the resources required, and eliminate the time needed to implement the plan o Once a tentative plan has been developed, it is important for the worker and the client to explicitly agree on the plan. o In other words, they enter into an agreement or a contact. The content of the contract is essentially the same with any grouping of clients. o At minimum, this agreement should delineate the following: Problems or concerns to be addressed Goals and objectives of the intervention Activities the client will undertake o Activities to be performed by the social worker Note expected duration of intervention in weeks or months Note probable place and number of sessions or meetings Identify additional people, agencies, or organizations expected to participate and their role in the change process Techniques and guidelines for direct practice - Selecting target problems and goals o During planning and contracting phase, social worker and client must agree on the goals toward which they are working o Goal is broad and global statement of problem, restated in a way that suggests a solution Client identifies and lists what he or she sees as the problems or concerns Social worker offers his or her recommendation, and explains why they also need to be considered Problems and concerns are reviewed and sorted into logical groupings to identify how they compare. The client examines the list and selects no more than three problems or concerns of highest priority Together, the client and worker discuss the concerns identified After considering these criteria, the three problems of the highest priority are selected It’s important for the social worker to remember that the client’s problems and concerns will most always affect or involve significant others. Unless these individuals, who are either part of the problem or part of the solution, are considered in the intervention planning - The problem search o The technique termed problem search is essentially a mini-contract or an agreement between the client and the social worker to devote some time to discuss the client’s situation in order to determine if the client has a problem, and, if so whether it should be addressed by some type of professional intervention o When using this technique, move through these steps Explain why you are suggesting this exploration Solicit the client’s thoughts and feedback on the proposal Set up a plan for future meeting Identify two or three topics to be discussed - The client needs list o This is a tool used to guide the case-management activities related to a certain category of clients. Most often it is used with clients who are highly dependent on the services provided by health care and social agencies o This tool is especially useful when the case-planning activity is being performed by a multi-agency or multidisciplinary team because it helps to clarify responsibilities, facilitates interagency coordination, and reduces misunderstandings within the team o A needs list reminds all involved of the concerns that should be addressed in a client’s service plan o Those involved in formulating this plan review the list and decide how each of the client’s needs and concerns can be addressed and which service provider will take on the responsibility - Formulating intervention objectives o Unless there is an agreed-upon goals and objectives for an intervention, the helping process will falter and it will be impossible to measure an intervention’s effectiveness. o Although the terms goals and objectives are often used interchangeably, they do not mean the same thing. o A goal is a broad and rather global statement o An objective is more specific and written in a manner that allows for measurement and evaluation o A properly developed objective meets the following criteria: Usually starts with the word to, followed by an action verb Specifies a single outcome to be achieved Specifies a target date for accomplishment Quantitative and measurable as possible Understandable to the client and others who are participating in the intervention Attainable, but still represents significant challenge and meaningful change - Written service contracts o Document that specifies the desired outcomes of the services to be provided, the key action that will be taken to achieve this outcome, the major roles and responsibilities of those involved in this effort, and the relevant timelines o Typically, the document is signed by the client and service provider o Other practitioners and agencies use the terms service agreement, case plan, treatment plan, intervention plan, or individual family support plan when referring to this type of document A service contract should answer the following What is the desired outcome of the service to the client? What is to be done by the client, and by when? What is to be done by the client’s significant others and by when? What is to be done by the social worker and other agency staff and by when? What services are to be obtained from other agencies or providers? How and when? What efforts will trigger a reassessment of the client’s situation and/or revision of the service contract? What fees, if any, will be charged for those services? What are the consequences, if any, for not adhering to the plan? For written service contracts Understand your agency’s policy regarding written service contracts and any legal requirements or legal interpretations relevant to their use with the clients you serve Develop a contract only after a thorough social assessment during which you and the client study and agree on the problems to be tackled By definition, a service contract specifies what the client will do and what the worker/agency will do The contract should be written in simple, clear language so that the client will know exactly what it means A contract should be developed in a way that makes success probable without sacrificing relevance The provisions of the contract should be modified as necessary to stay with changing realities of the situation - Makin use of informal resources o When appropriate and acceptable to the client, and intervention plan should consider drawing upon the informal resources within the client’s support network o Although informal resources are the oldest and most common form of helping activity, some professionals are reluctant to encourage their clients to use them Possible reasons include They have professional assumes that formal resources are inherently more effective than nonprofessionals, regardless of the client’s problem or situation They assume that the client had already thought about using informal resources and for the same reason has rejected the idea They doubt the capacity of informal resources to protect a client’s right to confidentiality When considering the appropriateness of looking to informal resources as a source of additional help to a client, the social worker should keep the following in mind: The fundamental goal of social work is to help clients improve their social functioning The client’s social support network should always be viewed as a potential reservoir of helping resources The ethical and legal codes concerning client’s confidentiality need not be a barrier since the client, in most situations, has first approached the informal resource Some clients are reluctant to approach or join a self-help group because they do not want to admit that they are having problems. They may find group work more attractive. A worker should not attempt to “professionalize”, train, or direct the actions of the informal helping resource. Generally, these people are most effective when they follow their judgements and respond spontaneously. - Family group conferencing o Brings together, in a face-to-face discussion, the parent and other individuals who are concerned about both the parent and the abused or neglected child o The facilitator asks the group to come up with a plan for keeping the child safe o In many cases, planning for the child involves making a plan that will help the parent change his or her behavior or situation o The family group sessions last 2-3 hours, based on these: The individuals who are most deeply concerned about and committed to the long term well-being of the child are, most likely, his or her blood relatives and close friends of the family. Family members know one another’s histories and their strengths, limitations, and problems A plan that is developed by family is more likely to be accepted and implemented than a plan developed by a social worker Guidelines for using FGC regarding the well-being of the child The FGC is to be used only when the parent has agreed FGC can be used at any point, but it is usually tried in situations where the agency and the parent have reached an impasse or when out-of-home placement is under consideration The FGC facilitator should have a neutral attitude toward the parent and not have an ongoing or prior relationship with the parent of family o For the FGC to be successful, the facilitator must carefully prepare the potential participants by explaining the purpose and process to the FGC o At the beginning of an FGC session, certain ground rules must be explained and displayed for all to see o The use of the group does not abrogate the responsibility of the social worker, agency, or court protecting the child o Following the meeting, the coordinator compiles notes and puts agreed upon plans into writing - The small group as a resource o Group approaches are essential to work with clients who are defensive and manipulative, as is frequently the case with clients whose problems resolve around substance abuse, sexual offenses, and domestic abuse o When a group meets for several sessions it will typically move through five stages of group development Preaffiliation Where the members size each other up, consider what they might have in common, and decide whether they want to be a part of the group Power and control Members test each other and come to a decision of where they fit in the group. They challenge each other for position, rank and leadership Intimacy Members recognize and come to value what they have in common Differentiation Differences are exhibited but respected Separation Members must struggle with the loss of meaningful relationships Techniques and guidelines for indirect practice - Establishing and changing organizations o An effective social agency is dynamic, it must constantly adapt to community and societal changes o Guidelines to suggest what to consider when planning and initiating organizational change Begin by describing as precisely as possible that change is needed and why Assess the organizations readiness for change Determine if the desire for change is shared across the various levels, departments, and units of the organization Assess the degree to which the change is compatible with the agency’s mission, traditions, and current goals Identify and assess the relative strength of the organizational subsystem and individuals who are likely to favor the change and those who oppose it o The agency, or a unit of the agency will most likely adopt a proposed change if it can be shown that the change will result in an increase in scope, authority, anatomy, or funds and other resources o The members of an organization will strongly resist a change that they perceive as a threat to their jobs, advancement, or opportunities within the organization o An organization will be more open to a proposed change if it can be demonstrated that other similar organization have successfully made this change - The process of agency planning o To operate in an effective and efficient manner and to grow and develop as an organization, a social agency must formulate both short- range and long-range plans that guide its ongoing activity and decision making o Following these guidelines will enhance the planning process Make certain that adequate and accurate data are available to those engaged in the planning process Keep the planning process as simple as possible so that all those who should participate can do so despite the day-to-day pressures of their own responsibilities Make sure that all who might be affected by a decision or proposed change are invited to participate in the discussion and encouraged to voice their thoughts and concerns Gather and organize ideas and promote creativity by performing a SWOPA analysis of the agency Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Problems Action Perform a competition analysis which asks those participating in the planning process to examine the activities of other agencies, organizations, or professional groups to determine how they compete with the agency’s current programs and services Perform a stakeholder’s analysis to determine their beliefs, values, and possible reactions to changes in the agency Perform a threat analysis to determine some possible future circumstances or action by others that could harm the agency Make sure that the many facets of the planning process are coordinated and well integrated - Selecting change issues for advocacy o Social workers encounter many people who are experiencing a problem or social injustice caused by the policies, actions, or the inactions of business, large corporations, or governmental agency o A helpful list of factors to consider when selecting an issue for social action includes A good issue is winnable – reasonable to believe that the desired changes can occur A good issue builds the organization or strengths the group of concerned people A good issue unites people A good issue affects a lot of people A good issue is strongly felt A good issue is simple enough to be stated in one sentence - Project planning and evaluation o Project planning includes Strategy selection – achieving a social agency’s goals calls for the selection of the best possible strategies among the available alternatives Scheduling – scheduling tools provide a visual means of depicting the relationship between the activities required for a project and the timeframe for completing each Task planning – the final step in completing a special project is to identify and carry out the activities required for its implementation - Planning a primary prevention program o Primary prevention consists of a set of actions intended to intervene and modify those conditions or situations that will, if not changes, lead to a problem o Following these general guidelines will help those planning to engage in primary prevention Enter the initial planning stage with caution and thoughtfulness; a poorly designed program is likely to fail Clearly define and describe the problem or condition you are attempting to prevent Identify the signs or indicators of the problem’s existence and its current level of seriousness so that you can later measure the impact of your prevention effort Recognize that any plan for prevention rests on the knowledge, beliefs, and assumptions made about when, why, and how this problem developed, as well as judgements about which individuals or groups are most likely to experience this problem Once the factors that cause the problem have been identified, it is necessary to decide which contributing factors, if any, can be influenced and changed. Finally, determine how the necessary changes can best be accomplished.