Chapter 6 outline
Chapter 6 outline COM 150
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by DJ on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COM 150 at La Salle University taught by Dr. Katie Dunleavy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Presentation skills in Journalism and Mass Communications at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Dj Torney 9/15/15 Chapter 1 Theory Timeline Tocqueville (18351840): His theory was based off of freedom, individualism and centralization. He theorized “with the demise of aristocrats, and the rise of greater equality, there are no groups capable of countering the everpresent tendency toward centralization. The mass of largely equal people is too “servile” to oppose this trend.” He links equality to “individualism” and the creation of individualists. Claude Henri SaintSimon (1760–1825): Saw the need for socialist reforms, especially the centralized planning of the economic system. He also saw the capitalists superseding the feudal nobility; he felt it inconceivable that the working class would come to replace the capitalists. Auguste Comte (1798–1857): Proposes that there are three intellectual stages through which the world has gone through. The theological stage or the major idea system emphasized the belief that supernatural powers and religious figures, modeled after humankind, are at the root of everything. The second stage is the metaphysical stage. This stage is characterized by the belief that abstract forces like nature, rather than personalized gods, explain virtually everything, and the last stage is the positivistic stage. This stage focused on the belief in science. “People now tended to give up the search for absolute causes (God or nature) and concentrated instead on observation of the social and physical world in the search for the laws governing them.” Emile Durkheim (1858–1917): Focused on social order. Came up with two types of social facts, material and nonmaterial. Material social facts are things like bureaucracy and law. Nonmaterial social facts are things like culture, and social institutions. “He found that earlier societies were held together primarily by non material social facts, specifically, a strongly held common morality, or what he called a strong collective conscience. However, because of the complexities of modern society, there had been a decline in the strength of the collective conscience.” Hegel (1770–1831): Theory was in idealistic terms. “At first, people were endowed only with the ability to acquire a sensory under standing of the world around them. They could understand things like the sight, smell, and feel of the social and physical world. Later, people developed the ability to be conscious of, to understand, themselves. With selfknowledge and self understanding, people began to understand that they could become more than they were”. Ludwig Feuerbach (1804–1872): He had an excessive emphasis on consciousness and the spirit of society. Focused on religion. “God is simply a projection by people of their while they reduce themselves. He argued that this kind of religion must be overcome and that its defeat could be aided by a materialist philosophy in which people, not religion, became their own highest object, Karl Marx (1818–1883): Marx believed that people are basically productive; that is, in order to survive, people need to work in, and with, nature. He wanted to bring an end to capitalism; “capitalism is a structure (or, more accurately, a series of structures) that erects barriers between an individual and the production process, the products of that process, and other people; ultimately, it even divides the individual himself or herself. This is the basic meaning of the concept of alienation” Max Weber (1864–1920): a theory of the process of rationalization. Interested in the general issue of why institutions in the Western world had grown progressively more rational while powerful barriers seemed to prevent a similar development in the rest of the world. The bureaucracy and the historical process of bureaucratization is a classic example of rationalization. Georg Simmel (18581918): Focused on individual action and interaction and forms of interaction and types of interactants. Based on interactions, “Simmel was concerned primarily with the emergence in the modern world of a money economy that becomes separate from the individual and predominant: the domination of the culture as a whole over the individual. As Simmel saw it, in the modern world, the larger culture and all its various components (including the money economy) expand, and as they expand, the importance of the individual decreases.” Herbert Spencer (1820–1903): Theory is called evolutionary theory, based on two evolutionary perspectives. The first of these theories relates primarily to the increasing size of society. Society grows through both the multiplication of individuals and the union of groups (compounding). The increasing size of society brings with it larger and more differentiated social structures, as well as the increasing differentiation of the functions they perform. In addition to their growth in size, societies evolve through compounding, that is, by unifying more and more adjoining groups. The second perspective deals with militant to industrial societies. Militant societies are defined by being structured for offensive and defensive warfare. Warfare was functional in bringing societies together (for example, through military conquest) and in creating the larger aggregates of people necessary for the development of industrial society. Industrial society is based on friendship, altruism, elaborate specialization, recognition for achievements rather than the characteristics one is born with, and voluntary cooperation among highly disciplined individuals.
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