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Introduction to American Religon
David Walker
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by andrearamirez on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to RG ST 7 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by David Walker in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction to American Religon in Religious Studies at University of California Santa Barbara.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
ABSTRACT Problem or question:  Description of study: Brief description of methods: Main results (include stat. results): Conclusion and Implications:  INTRODUCTION This experiment uses the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to understand the role of a  certain set of proteins in nervous system function. There is a widespread interest in the study of  C. elegans because it is a model organism with small size, short life cycle, and rapid ability to  reproduce which is ideal for a laboratory environment. Sexual determination in C. elegans is similar to Drosophila; the ratio of sex chromosomes to autosomes determines its sex. If the 6th chromosome pair is XX, then C. elegans will be a hermaphrodite. A XO combination in the 6th chromosome pair will produce a male. Hermaphrodites can self-fertilize or mate with males but cannot fertilize each other - the short life cycle of C. elegans reduces the experimental cycle and facilitates biological study­c­elegans  : There is a widespread interest in the study of C. elegans because it is a model organism that is  suitable for genetic, physiological, or evolutionary studies in a laboratory but also “shares many  of the essential biological characteristics that are central problems of human biology.”  ­Exhibits behavior and rudimentary learning ­“Provides the researcher with the ideal compromise between complexity and tractability” ­Nerve function is determined genetically Self­fertilizing hermaphrodite adds to it’s qualities of model organism, short life span, small size, ease of laboratory incubation  Lab Manual: The main purpose of this experiment is to understand the role of a select set of  proteins like transcription factors and signaling molecules in nervous system function.  ­ Lower the amounts of specific transcription factors and signaling molecules inside the  cells of a C. elegans animal by using the ability of double stranded RNA to block translation.  ­ Record how the removal of specific molecules affects the nervous system function ­Sensilla contain ciliated endings which are exposed to the external environment. These  ciliated neurons mediate chemoperception.  ­C. elegans moves toward its food, bacteria by following gradients of both water­soluble and  volatile chemicals ­Avoids compounds such as heavy metals and polyunsaturated fatty acids ­ The neurons used for chemo­attraction are AWA and AWC ­AWB is the neuron responsible for repulsion. ­The information obtained by these sensory neurons is sent to motor neurons that command  specific muscles and therefore, the organism’s movements ­The adult C. elegans hermaphrodite has 302 neurons that belong to two distinct and independent nervous systems: a large somatic nervous system (282 neurons) and a small pharyngeal nervous  system (20 neurons).  Cell bodies of most neurons are clustered in ganglia in the head or tail ­ AWA are born near the presumptive nose of the embryo during development ­Receptor expression: OCR­1, OCR­2, OSM­9, ODR­10 ­Chemotaxis to diacetyl, pyrazine, trimethyltiazole ­Receptor expression:   OSM­9; mammalian capsaicin receptor­like channel protein   DAF­11; transmembrane guanylyl cyclase   STR­2, G protein­coupled serpentine receptor, expressed asymmetrically (randomly on the right  or left side) Chemotaxis does not suggest that receptor was altered significantly. Receptor expression:  ­ STR­1; G protein­coupled serpentine receptor ­ DAF­11 ; transmembrane guanylyl cyclase ­ Possibly AEX­2; a 7­transmembrane domain protein with homology to the G protein­coupled  receptor family ­dpy­2 gene encodes collagen ­important in morphogenesis and possibly other developmental events ­morphologic phenotypes exhibited by mutants, unusual genetic interactions with the sqt­1  collagen gene, and suppression of mutations in the glp­1 and mup­1 genes.  ­ The proximity of the dpy­2 and dpy­10 genes (3.5 kilobase) and the structural similarity of their encoded proteins (41% amino acid identity) indicate that dpy­2 and dpy­10 are the result of a  gene duplication event. The genes do not, however, appear to be functionally redundant, because  a dpy­10 null mutant is not rescued by the dpy­2 gene. ­We have studied mutant alleles of the C. elegans dpy­7 gene, one of a large group of genes  whose mutant phenotype is altered body form and several of which have previously been shown  to encode cuticular collagens.  DATA Initial worm data Plate Number of worms added to each well Positive Control 4 Negative Control 4 Experimental 1 (48) 1 Experimental 2 (52) 5 Chemotaxis Well Number of worms on Number of words on Chemotaxis Index the “DA” side (A) the “0” side (B) ODR10 61 19 0.76 (Positive Control) L4440 190 2 0.99 (Negative Control) dpy­2 160 41 0.80 (Experimental 1) dpy­7 52 7 0.88 (Experimental 2) Chemotaxis Indexes Plate My chemotaxis index Other’s chemotaxis Expected Chemotaxis index Index Positive Control 0.76 0.606 0.5 Negative Control 0.99 0.783 1 Experimental 1: 48 0.80 0.692 1 Experimental 2: 52 0.88 0.764 1


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