CRJU 3200: Crime Prevention and Security, week 8 notes
CRJU 3200: Crime Prevention and Security, week 8 notes Crju 3200
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison Carr on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Crju 3200 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dr. Lab in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Crime Prevention and Security in Criminal Justice at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
CRJU 3200: Crime Prevention and Security, Spring Semester 2016 Week 8 Displacement of Crime Impact is made outside of the neighborhood/group being watched o Can be positive or negative Displacing the crime/shifting the crime This is a potential problem with any study Repetto (19070s): o Looked at CPTED o Saw a lack of absolute reduction o Called it a “crime spillover” Crime will spill over to somewhere else o 5 types of displacement: 1. Territorial (spacial)- shift from one geographic location to another 2. Temporal- doesn’t change crime, only changes when crime is committed 3. Tactical- how you commit the crime (finding another way to do it) 4. Target- need to recognize that not everyone is a victim and not everyone gets involved in prevention 5. Functional- changing crimes (of the offender) Using a knife instead of a gun (6.) (Bar and Pease): Perpetrator- you stop that 1 specific person, but the someone else will come in and commits the crime Drug sales Assumptions: o Crime is inelastic- a certain level of crime will always occur no matter what o Offenders are mobile- shift across the dimensions (from here to there) Limits of mobility: wealth, employment, structured activities, age, history, race, physiological temperament/personality Is displacement a real problem? o Can be good or bad o Benign= good displacement Crime fuse- crime all in 1 spot is the fuse, when there’s too much, then we will have to fix the crime problem o Malign= bad displacement Any crime is bad o Diffusion of benefits- opposite of displacement, benefit spill over is a good thing Offenders are rational Cognitive Mapping (mental mapping): o Made subconsciously, made through normal daily behavior o 4 aspects of cognitive mapping: recognition- you know where you’re at, you don’t have to remember how you got there prediction- you’re able to predict what might happen/should happen Evaluation- you take what you got and evaluate it what will happen if you do it? Action- based on the 3 other aspects, you will decide what actions to take o Assumption- everyone is rational based on cognitive mapping o Rationality is an individual decision Multi-nuclei community- home, entertainment, and work are the nuclei Connected by paths Home, entertainment, and work are the nodes High activity at the nodes Edges- good place to commit crime 1. Crime generator- area that draws in potential victims 2. Crime attractor- draws in potential victims and offenders o drug market 3. Hunting ground- offenders know that there may be victims in the area with a lack of guardianship In terms of mobility? Personal crimes are committed close to where the offender lives o 5-6 blocks o Involves no planning o Homicide, rape, aggravated assault Property crimes are more spread out o 2-3 miles o involves planning safest place to live: right next to the offender o More planning = more distance o Not conscious planning Crimes committed by kids are closer to their home o No source of transportation o They have not yet developed a cognitive map Territorial displacement: Not 100%, not all crime is displaced Most research is done here Clear evidence that it exists Problem: what is the spillover area? Where is the displacement occurring? o They only look for displacement right around the area being studied Temporal displacement: Clear evidence exists Lighting doesn’t really reduce crime Tactical displacement: The study in Seattle reinforced locks and doors o So the offenders broke windows etc. to get in the home Target displacement: Offenders just pick other homes to burglarize Functional displacement: Some shift of crime Clear evidence from Garrett & Bowers Any displacement is a problem for somebody We need to come up with ways for more people to get involved and participate in crime prevention
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