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anatomy and physiology 223

by: Nicole Starkey

anatomy and physiology 223

Marketplace > University of Massachusetts > Biology > anatomy and physiology 223
Nicole Starkey

Marx Laxer

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This lecture was the first lecture of the semester, it is an introduction on the endocrine system. It is mostly on hormones and second messenger system and learning what they are all about.
Marx Laxer
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This 13 page Reader was uploaded by Nicole Starkey on Monday June 30, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Massachusetts taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 204 views.


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Date Created: 06/30/14
The Endocrine System 0 Nervous systems main functions command control and communicate 0 Uses electric signals to communicate 0 Currency of communication electricity action potentials travel along neuron 0 The body s other main control system is the endocrine system 0 In uences metabolic activities of cells by means of hormones 0 Hormones chemical signals released into the blood 0 Some hormones are released into tissue 0 Other tissues and organs that produce hormones figure 161 0 Primary endocrine organs pineal gland epithalamus pituitary gland hypothesis thyroid glandneck parathyroid glands adrenal glands near the kidneys 0 Secondary endocrine organs Hypothalamus thymus gland main function stimulates immune cells located behind sternum pancreas dual function endocrine secretion into blood and exocrine produces digestive enzymes gonads production of sperm and ovaries in female 0 Table 164 o Adipose leptin effect on appetite appetite center hypothalamus 0 Small Intestine CCK communicates with the pancreas and gallbladder produces bile and poop o Stomachgastrin exerts effect on cells in stomach glands and produce hydrochloric acid 0 Kidneys stimulate production of red blood cells erythropoietin red blood cell production from red bone marrow Renin regulate blood pressure 0 Heart ANP Chemical structure is based on protein produced in upper chambers Sodium regulating hormone I Ex Blood pressure regulation Hormones 0 Hormones chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular uids o Endocrine directly in blood autocrine and paracrine are both released into tissue uid and paracrine exerts effect on neighboring cells interstitial uid o Regulate the processes of I Reproductiongonads sex hormones growthpituitary gland thyroid hormone and development I Mobilization of body defenses thymus regulates development of Tlymphocytes I Electrolyte Sodiumadrenal glands controlled by aldosterone uid Waterpituitary gland ADH and nutrient balance of blood and cells glucose insulin lowers glucose level and glycogen rises glucose level I Cellular metabolism and energy balance thyroid hormone if thyroid increases then metabolism increases Hormones 0 Classified into 3 categories 0 Amino acidbased most common I Size varies short chain AA proteins I Soluble in water cannot diffuse directly through the membrane I Must have something to carry them across membrane second messenger system 0 Steroids I Produced by adrenal and gonads I Building block molecule cholesterol I Diffuse directly through membrane lipids o Eicosanoid eicos gr 20 for 20 C chain biologically active lipids I Locally acting released by White blood cells and others I Leukotrienes I Mediate in ammation Vasodilation membrane permeability 0 Allergies 0 Asthma I Leukotrience receptor inhibitors 0 Singulair blocks receptor molecule and shuts off the effect allergy medicine I Prostaglandins 0 Mediate in ammation 0 Pains 0 Raising blood pressure 0 Synthesized by cyclooxygenase COX 0 COX inhibitors reduce pain inhibits production of pain Mechanism of Hormone Action 0 Hormones circulate to all tissues but only activate target cells 0 Target cells must have specific receptors to which the hormone binds 0 Ex Receptor for steroid hormone inside the cell 0 Works like a lock and key 0 Receptor proteins are present 0 On cell membrane Aminoacid based hormones except thyroid o In nucleus steroid hormones and thyroid Mechanism of Hormone Action 0 Hormones produce one or more of the following cellular changes in target cells 0 Alter plasma membrane permeability the movement of Sodium through cells 0 Stimulate protein synthesis CCK goes to pancreas and tells cells to produce hormonesdigestive protein 0 Activate or deactivate enzyme systems Ex Second messenger systems in the membrane membrane enzymes 0 Induce secretory activity Ex Gastrin causes cells to secrete hydrochloric acid 0 Stimulate mitosis erythropoietin increases RBC count Hormone Action on Target Cells 0 Hormones alter target cell activity by one of two mechanisms 0 Amino acid based hormones Second messengers involving G proteins I Needs second messenger system because it cannot diffuse o Steroid hormones Direct gene activation binds directly to the DNA can diffuse 0 The precise response depends on the type of the target cell 0 Molecular triggers not informational Amino AcidBased Hormone Action cAMP Second Messenger o Only applies to water soluble molecules because they cannot diffuse directly through o Second messenger is generated when a hormone binds to the receptor in plasma membrane 0 Three membrane components work in concert to set intracellular levels of the second messenger all components must be present o Hormone receptor binds the hormone to a specific receptor 0 Signal relay G protein travels through blood and binds to receptor I Once binding occurs it attaches to the receptor and causes a relay protein I The molecules that sits in the membrane next to the receptor changes shape and releases a G protein and activates the enzyme o Effector enzyme adenylate cyclase I The effector enzyme generates the second messenger system 0 CAMP activates protein kinases which causes cellular effects and it either stimulates or inhibits 0 Steps 0 1Hormone binds to the receptor in the plasma membrane acting as the first messenger o 2 Receptor activates a G protein I Receptor changes shape binds to inactive G protein I G protein activated as GDP guanosine disphosphate I It is then displaced by a high energy compound GTP guanosine triphosphate I light switch it is off when GDP is bound and on when GTP is bound 0 3 G protein moves along the membrane and binds to the effector enzyme adenylate cyclase I Some g proteins stimulate this enzyme and others inhibit I GTP is eventually hydrolyzed to GDP and the G protein is inactive again 0 4 Adenylate cyclase effector enzyme generates a second messenger CAMP to ATP o 5 Cyclic AMP activates protein kinases I CAMP is free to diffuse through the cell and triggers a cascade of chemical reactions by activating protein kinases 0 Protein kinases enzymes that phosphorylate add a phosphate group to varies proteins other enzymes 0 Phosphorylation activates some proteins and inhibits others may affect a variety of processes in the same target cell 0 Diagram 162 hormone receptor target cell G protein effector cAMPsecond messenger relay system 0 Takes a small amount of hormone to generate a second messenger system Amino AcidBased Hormone Action cAMP Second Messenger Steroid Hormones 0 Steroid hormones and thyroid hormone diffuse easily into their target cells don t need second messenger 0 Once inside they bind cytoplasm or nucleus and activate a specific intracellular receptor turns on gene activity or turns it off 0 The hormone receptor complex travels to the nucleus and binds a DNA associated receptor protein 0 This interaction prompts DNA transcription to produce mRNA 0 The mRNA is translated into proteins which bring about a cellular effect chaperone molecules make sure receptor doesn t bind without hormone o Positive affect turns on the gene activity and binds to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm to make a protein o Effect can be stimulatory or inhibitory 0 Figure 163 o Both steroid and thyroid hormone o Know chaperone molecules has to be present on the molecule because if not you could get false signals I Prevent accidental activation of the gene I Protection coating Steroid Hormones Factors Affecting Target Cell Activation o Only need a small amount of hormone in circulation to get the desired affect 0 Target cell activation depends on three factors 0 Blood levels of the hormone 0 Relative number of receptors on the target cell 0 The affinity of those receptors for the hormone 0 All three of these are regulated and may change rapidly in response to both internal and external stimuli 0 Can regulate number of receptors cells to bind hormone molecule when it gets there 0 Can regulate blood levels of hormone o Ex Early pregnancy as pregnancy continues you get more receptor molecules because more hormones are released o Contraction increased the strength and amount of hormones o More receptors stronger infinity the strength of the binding between the receptor and the hormone Blood Levels of the Hormone 0 Hormones are very potent 0 Effects exerted at very low concentrations 0 Hormones circulate in the blood in two forms I free or bound to protein carriers 0 Free arninoacid based peptides soluble in water and travel in the plasma o Cannot diffuse directly through the membrane 0 Bound steroid o Steroid lipid molecules travel bound to carrier protein molecules through the blood until they get to their target cell 0 Concentrations of circulating hormone re ect 0 Rate of release 0 Speed of inactivation and removal from the body Blood Levels of the Hormone 0 Hormone effects on target cells may appear 0 Immediately second messenger system 0 With delay from hours to days steroids in both starting and stopping I Takes time for the protein to generate start I Takes a while for the protein to slow down stop 0 Duration of hormone action is limited 0 Seconds amino acid based 0 Hours steroid based 0 Hormones are removed from the blood by 0 Degrading enzymes in the target cell breaks up hormone molecules 0 The kidneys hormones in urine are removed from body I Ex Pregnancy test 0 Liver enzyme systems Interaction of Hormones at Target Cells 0 Multiple hormones may bind to and act on a target cell at the same time o Have receptor for multiple different hormones 0 The effects of hormone interaction at the target cell may be different than the effects of a single hormone acting on the same cell Interaction of Hormones at Target Cells 0 Three types of hormone interaction 0 Permissiveness one hormone doesn t work without another hormone being present o Have to have two hormones present at the target cell at the same time in order to get a desired effect I Ex Growth and development have to have two hormones present in order for children to develop correctly I Male testosterone female estrogen sex hormone and thyroid either one alone will not give the right affect 0 Synergism more than one hormone produces the same effects on a target cell 0 When both are present at the same time you get an amplified increased response I Ex Glucose level in the liver is low glycogen and epinephrine sympathetic get an increase in glucose I Process to release glucose molecule glycogenolysis releasing glucose molecule 0 Antagonism one or more hormones opposes the action of another hormone o Cancel eachother out I Ex Glycogen raise glucose insulin lowers 0 Know definition and examples Control of Hormone Release 0 Blood levels of hormones o Are controlled by negative feedback systems 0 Vary only Within a narrow desirable range 0 Three mechanisms for endocrine gland stimulation negative feedback systems need receptor control center and effector once things get back to normal range effector is turned off 0 Humoral stimuli blood levels of a substance any Circulation 0 Neural stimuli direct nervous stimulation 0 Hormonal stimuli controlled by another hormone I How much hormone is released in the blood 0 Know terms and identify on diagram figure 164 Control of Hormone Release 0 Humoral stimuli secretion of hormones in direct response to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients 0 Any deviation from normal 0 Figure 164 parathyroid regulate calcium in the blood when calcium levels group it generates parathyroid hormone which causes an increase in calcium 0 It stimulates osteoclasts which breaks down bone matrix and rises calcium levels in the blood I Ex Parathyroid 0 Neural stimuli nerve fibers stimulate hormone release 0 Ex Only direct stimulation of a neural stimulation is the adrenal medulla sympathetic branch of the autonomic o Adrenal medulla postganglionic 0 Hormonal stimuli release of hormones in response to hormones produced by other endocrine organs 0 Ex Hypothalamus causes the pituitary gland to stimulate and it goes out to the thyroid gland adrenal cortex and gonad which turns on and turns off activity figure 164 Control of Hormone Release Control of Hormone Release by Nervous System 0 The nervous system modifies the stimulation of endocrine glands and their negative feedback mechanisms 0 The nervous system can override normal endocrine controls 0 Blood glucose levels usually 90110 mg100ml 0 During stress can rise significantly to fuel extra demands 0 Nervous system can override hormonal neural and humeral stimulation Major Endocrine Organs Pituitary Hypophysis 0 Pituitary gland hypophysis twolobed organ that secretes nine major hormones 0 Expended by the hypothalamus sits in sella turcia of sphenoid 0 Figure 165 infundibulum anterior lobe posterior lobe I Hormone molecules made in cell bodies travel as anterograde axonal transport and are stored in the hypophysis and are released into the blood I Hormone molecules terminate in the Infundibulum and are released through the capillary bed and travel through the small vein and are released in the anterior lobe name of system is the hypophyseal portal system I Hypophyseal portal system change in the normal ow of blood 0 Capillary bed gtvein9 capillary bed 0 Normal arrangement capillary bed gtvein gtheart 0 Know diagram and structure I Anterior lobe hormone GHgrowth hormone TSHthyroid stimulating hormone ACTH adrenal cortical tropic hormone FSHfollicle stimulating hormone LHluteinizing hormone PRL prolactin I Posterior lobe hormones oxytocin ADH 0 Neurohypophysis posterior lobe neural tissue and the infundibulum o Receives stores and releases hormones from the hypothalamus 0 Adenohypophysis anterior lobe made up of glandular tissue epithial tissue 0 Synthesizes and secretes a number of hormones 0 Hormone molecules are made in the hypothalamus and go down to posterior lobe for storage by axonal transport anterograde from cell body to axon 0 Neural cells that produce hormones to regulate blood leave hypothalamus going through specific structure of blood vessels Major Endocrine Organs Pituitary Hypophysis Adenohypophyseal Hormones Table 161 o Anterior lobe hormonesfigure 165 0 Regulation of hormone levels in the blood 0 GH growth hormone o GHRH growth hormone releasing hormoneGHIH growth hormone inhibiting hormone from hypothalamus 0 Target primarily bones and muscles 0 Stimulates growth 0 TSH thyroid stimulating hormone o TRH produced by hypothalamus uses hypopyseal portal system and goes to anterior lobe produces TRH thyroid releasing hormone o Stimulates development and activity of thyroid 0 ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone o CRH cortical tropic releasing hormone and tells the anterior lobe what hormones to release from hypothalamus o Stimulates adrenal cortex produces glucocorticoids 0 Gonadotropins FSHLH same in males and females 0 GnRH signal from hypothalamus and tells the anterior lobe what hormones to release goes to gonads o Gonadal development secondary sexual characteristics 0 PRL prolactin 0 Milk production 0 Testosterone production in males Adenohypophyseal Hormones Neurohypophyseal Hormones o Posterior lobe hormones 0 Produced by neurons in the hypothalamus 0 Oxytocin target tissue is smooth muscle cells in the uterus 0 ADH regulate ow of water retention uid levels in the body 0 Anterograde axonal transport Homeostatic Imbalances Growth Hormone 0 Hypersecretion anterior lobe o In children gigantism too much growth hormone normally proportion just bigger than normal 0 After growth ceases acromegaly bones of the hands and face continue to grow excess production of growth hormones 0 Hyposecretion o In children pituitary dwarfism too little growth hormone do not grow to expectations 0 If you have hyposecretion as an adult you don t change because you are done growing 0 Diabetes insipidus posterior lobe no relation of diabetes mellitus o ADH deficiency no uid regulation I Damage to hypothalamus or pituitary I Loss a lot of uid and it needs to be monitored closely Thyroid Gland gure 169 o Thyroid gland is anterior to trachea 0 Simple cuboidal epithelium hormone is not released into the blood until the Thyroid stimulating hormone sends a signal Thyroid Hormone 0 Thyroid hormone the body s major metabolic hormone 0 Consists of two closely related iodinecontaining amine compounds 0 T4 thyroXine has two tyrosine molecules plus four bound iodine atoms I Produced by follicular cells I Thyroxine released and stored in molecules and cannot be released from the gland until it comes in contact with iodine I Without iodine it cannot be released from the gland causes a build up I General growth and development during normal development in order to grow into proper size and structure permissiveness two hormones that generate a desired effect I Blood pressure regulation Increases blood pressure increased adrenergic receptors located in smooth muscles in arteries I Adrenergic receptors bind to NE produced by the sympathetic and contract regulating blood pressure 0 T3 triiodothyronine has two tyrosines with three bound iodine atoms 0 Affects Virtually all organs 0 Impacts o Glucose catabolismATP 0 General growth and developmentpermissive arrangement 0 Blood pressure adrenergic receptors in blood Vessels 0 Calcitonin lowers blood Ca 0 Inhibits one osteoclasts and stimulates osteoblasts 0 Antagonistic parathyroid Homeostatic Imbalances of Thyroid Hormone 0 Hyposecretion o In infants cretinism I Severe mental retardation I Disporportional growth of body structures I Required in a certain arrangements with other hormones 0 In adults myxedema Hashimoto s thyroiditis o Hypo secretion of thyroid hormone o Auto immune disease that prevents production of thyroid hormone I Low metabolic rate I Chills I Mental sluggishness what you feel like if you haVen t slept in 3 days I Thick dry skin puffy eyes 0 Endemic goiter due to lack of iodine o Iodine is constantly being produced in the body but with lack of iodine in the diet you cannot release the iodine in the body and it causes a buildup in the thyroid gland know picture Homeostatic Imbalances of Thyroid Hormone 0 Hypersecretion o Graves Disease I Autoimmune antibodies mimic TSH anterior pituitary 0 Thyroid gland gets signal to produce this hormone produces way too much TSH I Excess thyroid hormone released I High metabolic rate I Sweating I Rapid irregular heartbeat I Nervousness and Weight loss I Exophthalmia bulging of eye balls excess adipose and fibrous connective tissue on the back of the orbit that pushes the eye balls forward Parathyroid Glands gure 1612 0 Tiny glands embedded in the posterior aspect of the thyroid 0 PTH parathyroid hormone regulates calcium balance in the blood raises blood calcium level 0 Humeral regulation 0 Effect of PTH raises calcium level osteoclasts become stimulated and pulls calcium out of the bone and sends it back to the blood 0 Kidneys 0 Pulls vitamin D out of the body and the vitamin D is activated and goes to the small intestine and increases the control of calcium 0 Reabsorption of calcium in the urine Effects of Parathyroid Hormone Adrenal Suprarenal Glands 0 Adrenal glands paired pyramid shaped organs atop the kidneys 0 Structurally and functionally they are two glands in one o Adrenal medulla nervous tissue inner portion goes through the chain of ganglia and terminate in the adrenal medulla postganglionic adrenal cells I NE and epinephrine o Adrenal cortex glandular tissue outer portion receive there instructions from anterior lobe of pituitary I Hormonal stimulation Adrenal Glands Adrenal Cortex hormones 0 Mineralocorticoids Regulate the electrolyte concentrations of extracellular uids o Aldosterone maintains Na balance by reducing excretion from body affects kidney tuberal cells 0 Reduces secretion of sodium in the urine and Na is returned to the blood 0 Glucocorticoids cortisol Help resist stress by 0 Ensure a steady supply of energy help resist stress 0 Keeping blood sugar glucose levels constant energy o Utilization of fatsproteins for energy 0 Immune and in ammatory suppression 0 Gonadocorticoids mostly androgens testosterone precursors Adrenal Medulla 0 Under neural control 0 Epinephrine Adrenaline and norepinephrine Secretion causes 0 Blood glucose levels to rise increase o The heart to beat faster increase o Blood to be diverted to the brain heart and skeletal muscle increasing blood pressure fight or ight 0 Epinephrine more potent for heart and metabolism important for raising blood glucose level because it causes liver cells to preform glycogenolysis 0 Norepinephrine more in uential on peripheral vasoconstriction and blood pressure have to be able to constrict arteries and smooth muscles that has adrenergic receptors 0 Figure 1617 0 Short term stress adrenal medulla I Prepares you for ight or fight 0 Long term stress cortistol cortex Stress and the Adrenal Gland Homeostatic Imbalances of the Adrenal Hormones 0 Hypersecretion or overdose of glucocorticoids 0 Hypersecretion causes gland to produce too much 0 Could be caused by tumor 0 Overdose cortisol drugs are used to reduce pain 0 Cushing s Syndrome 0 Hypersecretion or overdose of cortisol 0 Persistent hyperglycemia o Water and salt Na retention back to the blood which increases blood pressure 0 Loss of bone and muscle protein 0 Hypertension and edemaswelling due to accumulation of interstitial uid usually shows up around face accumulation of adipose tissue and loss of bone and muscle protein decreased immunity Homeostatic Imbalances of the Adrenal Hormones 0 Hyposecretion of gluco and mineralocorticoids 0 Addison s Disease 0 Loss uid do not produce enough aldosterone o Low plasma glucose and sodium levels 0 Weight loss 0 Severe dehydration o Hypotension low blood pressure o Not enough filtration do not get enough blood to the brain with low blood pressure Pancreas 0 Pancreatic islets islets of Langerhans produce hormones endocrine products glucagon and insulin 0 Cells of the pancreas produce glucagon and insulin 0 Rest of the pancreas is exocrine production enzymes waste 0 Glucagon o Glycogenolysis the breakdown of glycogen to glucose release glucose molecules in the blood 0 Gluconeogenesis synthesis of glucose conversion proteinsamino acids into glucose periods of extreme starvation break down muscle tissue 0 Release of glucose to the blood from liver cells 0 Insulin o Lowers blood glucose levels 0 Enhances transport of glucose into body cells 0 Counters metabolic activity that would enhance blood glucose levels ie glycogenolysisgluconeogenesis shuts them down preventing the release of more glucose 0 Both these hormones are antagonistic Islets of Langerhans Regulation of Blood Glucose Levels 0 Figure 1619 0 Negative feedback loop 0 Look at histology of tissue 0 Know endocrine and exocrine portion Homeostatic Imbalance of Insulin 0 Hyposecretion or hypoactivity of insulin results in 0 Diabetes mellitus not to be confused with diabetes insipidus a deficiency of ADH I Hyposecretion enough insulin is not being produced I Hypoactivity insulin is being produced but it is not functioning properly I Inability to get glucose into tissue cells receptors on cell surface is not functioning properly and glucose is not getting into the blood plasma I Hyperglycemia excess levels of blood glucose leading to glycosuriaglucose shows up in the urine because it is not being filtered glucose cannot be returned to the blood 0 Three cardinal signs 0 Polyuria poly too much excess urination loss a lot of uid and you are extremely thirsty 0 Polydipsiaexcess thirst 0 Polyphagiaget into a state of starvation and there is excess eating Homeostatic Imbalance of Insulin 0 Table 164 understand read in book 0 Osmotic diuresis glucose molecule is being shifted into the urine and water is being let out of the bladder excess glucose in the urine Homeostatic Imbalance of Insulin 0 Type 1 insulin dependent diabetes hyposecretion o Autoimmune disease destruction of B cells insulin levels decrese o No insulin production 0 Early onset 0 Treatment injectable insulin 0 Type 2 noninsulin dependent diabetes Hypoactivity insulin cannot function right 0 Defect in receptors insulin resistance 0 Treatment oral medication life style changes management of diets Gonads Female 0 Paired ovaries in the abdominopelvic cavity produce estrogens and progesterone 0 Dual function organs endocrine hormone and gamete production 0 They are responsible for o Maturation of the reproductive organs 0 Gamete production o Appearance of secondary sexual characteristics 0 Breast development and cyclic changes in the uterine mucosa Gonads Male 0 Testes located in an extra abdominal sac scrotum produce testosterone 0 Testosterone o Initiates maturation of male reproductive organs 0 Causes appearance of secondary sexual characteristics and sex drive 0 Gamete production 0 Maintains sex organs in their functional state Pineal Gland 0 Small gland which is part of the epithalamus 0 Secretory product is melatonin 0 Melatonin is involved With o Daynight cycles rise in low light and decrease in high light 0 Pineal gland get signal by specific receptors that detects change in light level I Image forming rods and cones I Light level change melanospin ganglia 0 Melanopsin ganglia cells send their information from the retina to the hypothalamus which signals the pineal gland and then responds 0 Physiological processes that show rhythmic variations body temperature sleep appetite


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