Week Four Notes
Week Four Notes History 370
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by KatieAlbritton on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 370 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. J. McCarthy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see History of the Caribbean in History at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
The British Caribbean and Piracy Katie Albritton Study Soup The British Caribbean British Maritime Traditions North Sea cogs Round hull for storms waves Single mast steering board Flanders wool trade Processed in Flanders Merchants have extraterritoriality in London Bordeaux wine trade British province Aquitaine Most lost in 1214 but trade continues Britain is too cold to grow grapes Bristol fisheries Fishing in the open ocean Help fund John Cabot voyages sent by Henry VII 14908 Coastal pirates sea dogs Matched by Dutch pechelingues or Zeerovers Mostly prey on the North Sea and coastal shipping Expansion to Ireland Henry II order re church 1154 Lord of Ireland Henry VIII as king of Ireland Surrender regrant Land at my pleasure Marian Plantations pale Dublin Elizabethan conquest Violent difficult incomplete English soldiers tend to marry in Ireland Ulster Plantation James I began 1606 Scottish settlers who will not marry Catholics Ulster rising English Civil Wars Most Irish supported King Charles I King lost Cromwell conquestretribution Vanquished go to hell or Connaucht or Barbados Punished Ireland for supporting the king Kills priests and children Seize land from the Irish Tudor Religious Settlements Preoccupation 16th century Ie England too busy to pursue empire Centralizing goals Government and church Henry VIII creates church of England 1533 Elizabeth39s Overseas Projects Hawkins Drake Cavendish 1560s Illegal to trade in slaves provisions Sneak into Spanish Empire Northwest passage Martin Frobisher 1576 Humphrey Gilbert claims Newfoundland 1583 John Davis 1585 Muscovy Company 1584 Seek trade with Asia Reach China via Russia or around Russia Can39t Lost colony Roanoke Island 1587 John White leads funded by Walter Raleigh Want a colony that can feed itself White can39t return with supplies until 1589 Colonists vanished Francis Drake circumnavigation 15771581 Takes Spanish treasure at Callao continues to Mexico across King of Spain furious Britain is not a big power it39s broke East India Company Chartered 1612 HQ Surat Gujarat Bombay 1661 HoojliBengal Opium poppies Quasimilitary Quasigovernmental India From India Tea cotton Chinese SE Asian goods porcelain spices Singapore Hong Kong as financial centers 19th century EIC cedes government of India to British crown 1857 Makes them a lot of money New England Separatists Plymouth colony 1620 After exile in Leyden May ower Compact Salem 1628 trade Massachusetts Bay Colony Boston 1630 Winthrop founds City on a Hill Religion commerce goals Congregationalism religion Comes from the British Army Taverns Popular but controversial India Wharf downtown Boston trade center Trade triangles North Atlantic Manufactured goods slaves sugar Tradition of hardworking Yankees Caribbean planters stereotype fat drunk rich Virginia Virginia Company 1607 Goal selfsustaining colony John Smith Malarial violent Europeans unwelcome Bermuda VA Co Ship wrecked 1609 Survivors help save Jamestown Found successful colony at Bermuda Free blacks own land later exiled Tobacco experiments eventually produce quality Virginia House of Burgesses f 1619 Slave society formed Chesapeake as main British settlements Mixed message to Caribbean How much religion Commerce Slavery St Kitts Barbados Three foci of British settlement New England Virginia Barbados Earl of Carlisle Proprietary colony 1624 Island has become uninhabited Spanish slave raids Sugar society Sets pattern for Caribbean Sugar deforestation Method brought by Dutch from Brazil Parishes wealth quickly settled all land taken stable society Many indentured servants from Cromwell Irish Red Legs Horrible tobacco grown Little England live like back in England Clothes houses Too hot humid Attacked during civil war for loyalty to the king 1642 Deal can trade with the Dutch Little slave resistance over the course of the colonial period Making a lot of money off of sugar Leewards Northern lesser Antilles Nevis Settled from St Kitts 1628 Wealth from sugar but decreased Monserrat 1632 Many Irish settlers Contested between France and Britain Antigua 1632 f Christopher Codrington Sugar agriculture St John39s as regional capital Virgin Islands Contested among Denmark England and the Netherlands Created as British Leeward islands 1671 Divided into two groups 1816 Antigua Barbuda Moserrat St Christopher Nevis Anguilla Virgin Islands Mercantilism the Western Design Puritans win civil wars Execute King Charles II Cromwell dismisses Parliament 1653 Alliance with Holland Sweden Protestant Replace Spain Spain vulnerable Cromwell military success Mops up brutally Scotland Ireland Largest army in Europe Cromwell aggressive and ambitious Goal Eliminate Spain in the Caribbean Santo Domingo repels British easily 1655 manage to take Jamaica Jamaica Taken 1655 Governor Thomas Modyford Comes from Barbados Decide pirates or agriculture Pirates Wealth glamor Agriculture Stability respectability YES Henry Morgan made Lt Governor 1674 Does poorly Sugar coffee Port Royal as pirate haven commercial center Keep pirates away from Kingston Spanish Town Becoming more commercial Earthquake destroys in 1691 Boom Rivals Barbados in wealth prestige Planters lobby in parliament South Carolina Proprietary colony chartered 1663 Eight lords proprietors Barbados style plantations Slave laws from Barbados Windwards Carib Indians Mountainous settled later Some settlements later Neutral zone British and French Not particularly profitable yet Wars British V French The Golden Age of the Pirates Atlantic Trade Havana trade Carrera Ship silver from Cuba to Spain Only Castillians permitted 1527 Merchants try to pass as Castillian Smuggling some agrant offshore Family might have an HQ in Lima or Mexico City Armed annual eet through 1659 Passengers travel to Spanish colonies Sailors often work for passage Monopoly ended 1796 Staples Numerous triangles of trade Silver natural products Asian goods to Europe African slaves to America Manufactured products from Europe Pioneering routes Spanish Carrera 1520s African slaves to Brazil 1530s New England to England 1620s England to aribbean 1620s African slaves to Caribbean 1640s Slaves The Middle Passage Few to no Spaniards Portuguese 1530s British smugglers 1560s Dutch 1620s English 164039s French 1660s Americans 18th century Main Caribbean ports Bridgetown Kingston Willemstad Castagena Santiago Havana later Abolition of slave trade UK and USA 1807 Why go on account The Push Harsh conditions aboard ship Bad food bad water bad weather Disease Perhaps pressed into service in the first place Discipline Increased during commercial era Harsh punishments might even kill Doctor supposed to stop ogging before death Pay low for common seamen Improving 18th century Had become sailor to run away from Poverty wife criminal prosecution The Pull Became masterless man Work available Logging dock work Pirates capture ship make it sound alluring Pirate articles make it seem democratic Caribbean water beautiful Caribbean colonies af uent Lots of rum Seems like an easy life hang around steal occasionally The Buccaneers 1630s1670s French deserters go to Tortuga Some go to NW Haiti Learn barbecue from natives Boucanier is a purveyor of cooked meats in French Sell provisions to passing ships Live in pairs in small cabins Avoid Spanish Guarda Costa Emerge when the coast is clear Eventually steal small ships Rain Spanish coastal settlements Become privateers and pirates eventually Privateers 1660s1714 AngloDutch wars 16561678 AngloFrench wars 16911714 Expensive Britain building navy Huge increases 1660s Still can39t afford enough ships men Hire privateers French building navy Derogeance canceled for maritime investment Finance minister J B Colbert stresses naval growth 1660s1670s wants canal in Southern France William becomes king of England 1689 Seeks huge increase for French war Most famous privateer Henry Morgan sacked Spanish Panama City in 1671 Breech walls of Panama City Used nuns as human shields Becomes unpopular among his men for not evenly splitting the treasure Becomes Lt Governor of Jamaica Does poorly and dies Decommissions in 1714 William Anne tire o hiring privateers Disgraceful Fine line between privateer and pirate Don39t like being beholden to vagabonds Sack of Panama had been after peace was called William created the Bank of England in 1694 Funded more naval expansion War of Spanish Succession fought until standstill in 1714 France almost bankrupt England can39t maintain the huge expense Both want peaceful trade Anne decommissions 40000 sailors Many become pirates Felt cheated vengeful broke Blackbeard39s agship was the Queen Anne39s Revenge Golden Age of Piracy 17141728 William Kidd d 1691 Privateer hired as pirate hunter Henry Avery d 1690 Had been a privateer led a group to Madagascar Charles Vane d 1720 Fought Woodes Rogers feisty Benjamin Hornigold d 1719 Blackbeard39s mentor Edward Teach d 1718 Blackbeard Cruel reputation Stede Bonnet d 1718 Gentleman pirate Hanged in Charleston Jack Rackham d 1720 Calico Jack In company of Mary Read and Ann Bonny Dashing renegade Edward Low d 1724 Hanged by the French Bartholomew Roberts d 1724 Black Bart Pirate articles Captured the most ships 200 kept men sober and hardworking A merry life but a short one Gaining members About 3000 named pirated 1660s1730 Need crewmembers to take and sail ships Often ended up with huge crews Pirate Life Never enough food Fancy clothes lots of rum Often too drunk to attack Pirate ags to induce fear Try for immediate surrender Pirate Articles Suggests democratic society Then and now Was not democratic at all Fair compensation compared to navy Very little honor among thieves Roberts articles the most famous Female Pirates Mary Read and Ann Bonny Disguised as men Both got pregnant in jail Not executed
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