Bio Notes 2-22-2016
Bio Notes 2-22-2016 BIOL 1014
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Florman on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1014 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Dr. Kurt Pontasch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Life: Continuity and Change in Biology at University of Northern Iowa.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Life: Continuity and Change Lecture 2-22-2016 Connective Tissue Proper Variable, but always contains numerous fibers and cells 3 types of fibers Collagenous- made of collagen and bend, but do not stretch Elastic- made of elastin, bend and stretch and are thinner than collagenous fibers Reticular- branched, interlace to form networks, form at the junction of connective tissue and other tissue 5 types of cells Fibroblast- secrete protein from which the fibers are formed Macrophages- similar to white blood cells, they move like an amoeba and phagocytize (eat stuff) Mast- produce substances that reduce blood clotting (heparin) Produces substance that increase membrane permeability (histamine) Fat- stores fat White blood cell- helps fight infection Ground Substance- mixture of water, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids that the cells and fibers are in Loose connective tissue proper Loose, irregular arrangement of fibers Many cells of various types Large amount of Ground Substance Found in nearly all other tissues and it forms a network Dense connective tissue Fibers are tightly packed Small number of cells ad small amount of Ground Substance Tendons- muscle to bone Ligaments- bone to bone Cartilage Special type of dense fibrous connective tissue in which the ground substance is replaced by a “rubbery substance” Few cells Can support great weight, but is flexible and somewhat elastic Forms the skeleton of all vertebrae embryos, framework for the bones (ossification) Bone Hard rigid matrix and it contains many collagenous fibers Surprising amount of water Impregnated with two inorganic salts -> CaCO3 and CaPO3 Also contains a few widely separated bone cells Muscles Cells have a special structure which allows them to contract more than a regular cell Cells elongate and are arranged in bundles held together by connective tissue 3 types of muscles in vertebrates Skeletal muscles- voluntary movement of organisms Smooth muscles- responsible for involuntary movement of organs Cardiac muscles- tissue which comprises the heart Nerve Specializes in transmitting and receiving stimuli Each cell contains a cell body with a nucleus and 1 or more fibers Dendrite Fibers- carry impulses toward the cell body Axon Fibers- carry impulses away from the cell body Some fibers are up to a meter long A bundle of fibers held together by connective tissue constitutes a nerve- need insulation- myelin sheet (fat) All animals except sponges have muscles and nerves These tissues allow animals to move more rapidly in response to stimuli
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