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Bio Notes 2-26-2016

by: Crystal Florman

Bio Notes 2-26-2016 BIOL 1014

Crystal Florman
GPA 3.64

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Organs and Systems, Information Systems
Life: Continuity and Change
Dr. Kurt Pontasch
Class Notes
Information Systems, organs, Systems, organ system
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Florman on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1014 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Dr. Kurt Pontasch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Life: Continuity and Change in Biology at University of Northern Iowa.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
Life: Continuity and Change Lecture Notes 2-26-2016 Organs and Systems  Structural organization of organs and organ systems is much more complex in animals than plants o Example: Human skin- contains 4 primary tissue types  Prevents excess water loss  Protects the body from pathogens and other bad things  Excretes waste materials  Regulates body temperature  Source of sensory input  Storage depot for excess nutrients  Organs work together as organ systems in bodies of higher animals o Digestive system- procure and process nutrients o Repertory system- gas exchange o Circulatory system- internal transport system o Excretory system- remove metabolic wastes, regulates chemistry of fluids o Endocrine system- glands that produce hormones- internal control o Nervous system- coordinates many functions of the animal o Skeletal system- provides support and shape o Muscular system- movement o Reproductive system- produce new individuals Information Systems  Structure of DNA and RNA o Organic macromolecules called Nucleic Acids o Nucleic Acids- polymers made up of monomers called nucleotides  Nucleotide- phosphate group+ sugar+ Nitrogenous base  H2PO3- phosphoric acid o DNA-sugar- deoxyribose o RNA- sugar- ribose o 2 sizes of nitrogenous bases  Larger- Adenine and Guanine- double ring structure  Smaller- cytosine and thymine and uracil- single ring structure  DNA- AT GC (pairs)  RNA- AG CU (pairs)  In DNA- function as the original blueprint of the synthesis of polypeptides (proteins)  In RNA- involved with the synthesis of proteins at the ribosomes o 2 comb like stands held together at nitrogenous base by hydrogen bonds  Twist about each other- double helix- duplex DNA  4 bases in in DNA always pair in the same way- small with large- complementary base pairs  2 different forms depending on if it is a prokaryote or eukaryote  E- DNA combines with histone proteins to form chromatin coils o Condensed chromatin coils  P- DNA does not combine with histone proteins- form a loop  DNA serves as a store house of the information that tells the cell: o Which chemicals are nutrients o How to ingest those nutrients o How to digest/ metabolize o How to eliminate metabolic waste o How to repair and assemble cell parts o How to reproduce o How to react o How to regulate all cell functions  Without DNA the cell will die  Mammal Red Blood Cells don’t have a nucleus- survive on enzymes produced early in the cell’s life, but die within 120 days of losing their nucleus  DNA Replication o When parent cells reproduce they must pass a complete set of DNA to the daughter cells o DNA Replication is the process of duplicating the genetic material prior to its distribution to daughter cells  Unzipping enzyme unzips the duplex DNA by breaking H bonds  DNA polymerase brings new DNA Nucleotides to unzipped area  New nucleotides line up and form H bonds with new base pair  Strong covalent bonds form between the sugar and phosphate of adjacent nucleotides o Exposed bases of the original DNA serve as a template for constructing the new DNA o As the new strand is formed it twists into a double helix o Parent cells contain two identical sets of DNA- passed on to daughter cells during mitosis


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