Bio Notes 2-29-2016
Bio Notes 2-29-2016 BIOL 1014
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Florman on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1014 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Dr. Kurt Pontasch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Life: Continuity and Change in Biology at University of Northern Iowa.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Life: Continuity and Change Lecture 2-29-2016 DNADNAmRNAProtein Replication- Transcription- Translation Transcription DNA is like a reference library that doesn’t allow its books to circulate, information must be copied to be taken out of the library to be used in the cell DNA Transcription- process of copying the information in the DNA to a single strand of RNA- this is used to make proteins DNA transcription is similar to replication in that: o An enzyme unzips the DNA strand o DNA also serves as a template for making DNA BUT: o Only one of the two strands serve as a template o Only a portion of the strand is copied o Instead of Adenine-Thymine its Adenine-Uracil Genetic Code o DNA is a molecular language- each nucleotide is a letter- each word is always three letters long o A DNA code is a triplet nucleotide sequence that codes for one of the 20 amino acids o Gene- a series of DNA codes found at a particular place along a DNA strand Can be transcribed into an mRNA molecule which controls the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain Determines primary structure One gene= one polypeptide chain Each gene has an initiator and a terminator Starts and stops each chain During DNA transcription to mRNA- the triplet mRNA sequences that are complementary to the DNA triplets are called codons Three types of RNA o mRNA- messenger RNA straight chain copy of a gene that describes the exact sequence in which amino acids should be bound together to form a polypeptide chain o tRNA- transfer RNA- shaped like a clover leaf one end is coded to pick up a particular amino acid other end contains an anticodon that is complementary to the mRNA codon for that particular amino acid o rRNA- ribosomal RNA is sued along with proteins to form the ribosomes Translation The process of which the nucleic acid language is translated to the protein language To make translations you need a “dictionary” o Dictionary contains “64 words”- mRNA codons o These codons translate to 20 amino acids, a terminator, and an initiator mRNA leaves the nucleus and moves to the ribosome As the ribosome moves along the mRNA strand, tRNA brings amino acids tRNA anticodons join with mRNA codons adjacent amino acids form peptide bonds to form a polypeptide chain tRNA is set free to go get another amino acid o often there are several ribosomes attached to and reading the same mRNA strand o that series of ribosomes is called a polysome Alterations of DNA Mutation- a change in DNA’s genetic code o Those mutations cause changes in the mRNA codons that are transcribed o Occur frequently, but not all have serious consequences Since some of the commonly used amino acids are coded for by more than one codon the mutation may result in no effect, but if the mutated DNA that results in a codon for a different amino acid, chances are the protein won’t form correctly o Mutagenic agents are things that cause mutations Point mutations- occur when a change in a nucleotide results in an incorrect insertion of an amino acid in a polypeptide chain Chromosomal mutations- occur when a strand of DNA is broken- LSD can cause this o If mutations occur in gametes (sex cells) they will be passed off to the offspring and every cell with have that mutation
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