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Bio Notes 3-2-2016

by: Crystal Florman

Bio Notes 3-2-2016 BIOL 1014

Crystal Florman
GPA 3.64

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About this Document

Life: Continuity and Change
Dr. Kurt Pontasch
Class Notes
Mitosis, stages of mitosis
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Florman on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1014 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Dr. Kurt Pontasch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Life: Continuity and Change in Biology at University of Northern Iowa.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
Life: Continuity and Change Lecture 3-2-2016 Mitosis  Importance of cell division o Insures that organisms can increase in size, start off with one cell and now have several trillion cells, dead cells are replaced with new ones (1 million per second), damaged tissues can be repaired o Cell division has two events  Mitosis- the distribution of parent DNA into 2 new daughter nuclei  Cytokinesis- division of cytoplasm o Cell cycle- all cells have a cycle, but vary in the amount of time spent in each stage  Eukaryote cells have 4 stages: G1, S, G2, Cell Division (CD)  G1- cell grows in volume as it produces tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes and other cell components  S- DNA replication occurs in preparation for the distribution of genes to the daughter cells  G2- spindle fiber proteins are formed in preparation for mitosis  CD- both mitosis and cytokinesis  Interphase- time spent between cell divisions o Nuclear membrane is intact, chromosomes are not visible, and the cell is going about its normal metabolic activity Stages of Mitosis  4 stages of mitosis o Prophase  As the G2 stage of interphase ends this begins  Thin coils of chromatin tighten and become visible as chromosomes  Soon we see that each chromosomes are made up of 2 parallel threads called chromatids  Chromatids were formed during the S stage of interphase when the DNA was replicated- held together by the centromere  Centrioles begin to move to the opposite sides of the cell- as they move microtubules form a spindle that extends between them  By the end of prophase the nuclear membrane and the nucleolus have disappeared o Metaphase  Chromosomes become attached to the spindle fibers at their centromeres  Line up along the equatorial plain  At this point each chromosome consists of 2 chromatids  Humans have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes- 46 chromosomes- 92 chromatids o Anaphase  Chromosomes split at the centromere and the chromatids move along the spindle fibers towards the poles  Chromatids now called daughter chromosomes- identical genetic info  End- 2 identical sets of chromosomes at the poles- cytokinesis begins o Telophase  Groups of chromosomes at each pole become surrounded by a nuclear membrane  Spindle fibers disintegrate- centrioles replicated- mitosis is over  Cell still hasn’t split o After telophase the second step in CD (cytokinesis) is complete  Mitosis- Plant and animal differences o Plants lack centrioles but still produce spindle fibers o Animal cytokinesis involves a cleavage furrow- plant involves a cell plate which forms at the cell center and moves outward to divide the cell


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