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Human Anatomy and Physiology II

by: Tia Spears

Human Anatomy and Physiology II Biol 2120

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > Biol 2120 > Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Tia Spears
GPA 3.0
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About this Document

These notes cover the Immune System
Human Anatomy & Physiology 2
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tia Spears on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2120 at Georgia State University taught by Safer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 2 in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
Immune System  The body has a 3 part policy that o Detects o Deflects o Destroy  The immune system involves different tissue groups, organ systems, and specialized defense cells o Innate (nonspecific) defense system – uses arsenal of physical and chemical barriers, killer cells, and even fever, to keep you healthy  External barricades – skin, mucous membranes  Skin – tough, keratinized epithelial membrane for the body that protects it from microorganisms as long as it isn’t cut  Mucous membrane – lies any cavity o Ex: Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, and Reproductive tracts  Internal defenses – phagocytes, antimicrobial proteins, and other attack cells  In order to fight off bacteria, fungi, or protists the body will produce chemical signals, a fever, causing inflammation or other defensive tactics that help identify and attack infectious invaders.  Phagocytes – name means “to eat” o They attack invaders found inside the body and “eat” them o Different varieties:  Neutrophils – most abundant type of your white blood cells  Macrophages – “big eater” that derived from monocytes  2 types: o Free types – patrol tissues looking for bacteria or fungi o Fixed types – attach to fibers using cytoplasmic extensions in order to eat the invaders in specific organs, devouring anything suspicious that passes by  Natural killer cells – patrols the blood and lymph looking for abnormal cells and can kill your own cells if they are infected with viruses or have become cancerous o If a cell is infected, then it no longer makes a protein called MHC1 ( Major Histocompatibility Complex) o Once a Natural Killer Cell detects an infected cell it pokes it with an enzyme that triggers apoptosis, or programmed cell death o Inflammatory response – releases chemical to alert the body of invaders  Ex: the body will experience redness, swelling, heat, and pain o Adaptive (acquired) immune system – expressly introduced to a specific pathogen and recognize it as a threat before it will then attack  Once it knows what pathogen is a threat it will never forget it  Is slow to act because it takes time to realize who is a threat and who is not  Organic o Ex: touching a dirty faucet in the restroom  Premeditated o Vaccines – dead or weaken pathogen that primes the body to fight hard and fast in case that antigen appears in the body  Adaptive immunity is systemic which means it can fight throughout your whole body at once.  Humoral immunity – dispatches antibodies o Antibodies – patrols the body’s “humors” or fluid such as blood and lymph where they attack viruses and bacteria in the interstitial space between cells  Strategies:  Neutralization – (most effective) antibodies physically block the binding sites on viruses or bacterial toxins so that they cannot mess with the tissues o Within your humoral immune system are B lymphocytes which are white blood cells that originate and mature in bone marrow.  As it matures, it is able to tell which antigen is a threat or not by developing immunocompetence – how to recognize and bind to particular antigen  Or by developing self- tolerance – knowing how to not attack the body’s own cells  Once its fully mature, B lymphocyte displays around 10,000 special protein receptors on its surface which are its membrane bound antibodies that are unique to the lymphocyte  Once the B cell finds its perfect antigen it is match with, it binds to it thus multiplying to attack other antigens just like it  Clones = effector cells – active fighters o Packed with rough E.R. which produces numerous amounts of antibodies over again for that particular invader  Around 2,000 antibodies per second (free floating antibodies)  Some effector cells become memory cells that preserve the genetic code for that specific successful antibody. o If the antigen returns, there will be a secondary immune response that will be stronger and faster than the first  Ex: Vaccines  Cellular defenses – cell fights cells o T lymphocytes (T cells) goes after body cells that have become viruses or bacteria or have become cancerous o Like B cells, T cells have unique antigen receptors, called the T cell receptor, or TCR. o However, the receptors of cytotoxic and helper T cells cannot recognize antigen present in the tissues, lymph, or blood. o Instead, antigen must be presented to them by an antigen- presenting cell (APC). o When an APC presents a viral or cancer cell antigen, the antigen is first linked to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein; together they are presented to a T cell. o When a macrophage antigen is presented to a T cell, the T cell recognizes the antigen. o Once a helper T cell recognizes the antigen, it undergoes clonal expansion and produces cytokines stimulating immune cells to remain active and perform their functions. o Once a cytotoxic T cell is activated, it undergoes clonal expansion and destroys any cell that possesses antigen if the cell bears the correct antigen presented earlier. o As the infection disappears, the immune reaction wanes and few cytokines are produced. o Active Immunity  Occurs when an individual produces antibodies on their own in response to a foreign antigen  Immunization o Passive immunity  Occurs when an individual is given prepared antibodies (immunoglobulins) to combat a disease  Short-lived o Antibiotics slow down microbial reproduction  Antibiotics are chemicals that help to combat infection by slowing down the multiplication of bacteria, fungi, or protists  The occasional mutant microbe that is resistant to an antibiotic will pass on the genes for resistance to its offspring, which results in many antibiotics becoming ineffective in treating diseases  Antibiotics are not effective against viruses o Vaccinations stimulate the development of memory cells and future immunity against disease  A vaccine stimulates an immune response by exposing a person to antigens produced by a pathogen  Vaccines often consist of weakened or killed microbes, or some of the pathogen’s antigens  Exposure to these antigens results in the body producing an army of memory cells that confer immunity against living microbes of the same type  In the adaptive immune system it must be able to identify antigens which will tell whether they are a threat or not  Antigens- could be an invader o Bacteria o Virus o Fungus o Toxin/diseased cell


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