notes31-33.pdf History 1020
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Phillips on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari L Casteel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 161 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
HISTORY 1020 NOTES 3.1.16 - 3.3.16 Professor Cari Casteel WWI: THE GREAT WAR (1914-1919) - the Balkans: Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Albania, etc. - wars there b/c Europe wants to combine them into one country o The Balkans are weak b/c many religions and no sense of nationalism - Europe and Russia are friendly with Balkans o Russia wants somewhere the ports won’t freeze over o Serbia is the only one Russia is in alliance with BLACK HAND - organization in Serbia that wants the Balkans to unify o slogan “unification of death” - Gavrillo Princip (1894-1918) o Sent with others on assassination mission to kill Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and Sophie (ended up being the reason WWI began) o During attempt, one person throws grenade and misses – causes the others to be afraid to try o Archduke turns around after parade to visit people injured from grenade – Princip took advantage and shot the Archduke and his wife o Princip was a minor at the time WHY EVERYONE GOT INVOLVED - Austria-Hungary mad at Serbia but France allied w/ Serbia, so France, Britain, and Russia have to help each other (b/c of Triple Entente) against the Triple Alliance o Propaganda comes out that bashed Serbia - Germany declares war o Germany’s goal: weaken France and have a quick war o Didn’t have military to fight in France and Russia at once so wanted to get France out of the way quickly to then have power to attack Russia THE SCHLIEFFEN PLAN AND PLAN 17 - The Schlieffen Plan: Germany was to go through Belgium (a neutral country) to get to France - Plan 17: France fortified German-French boarder o Meanwhile, the Germans carry out the Schlieffen Plan ^^ - French getting destroyed b/c using old methods of war and old weapons o Britain gets involved and helps the French troops get into Paris - French used taxis to get to paris quicker then on foot o This boosted morale and was good video propaganda - Western Front o People on both sides digging trenches o Not making much progress (yards at a time) o At this point realized it wasn’t going to be a short war PROPAGANDA - trying to encourage people to enlist - changes patriotism if aren’t enlisted - GB has volunteer army so propaganda played a huge role in getting people to enlist - France, Germany, and Russia used propaganda to get people to buy war bonds to help pay for the war NEW TECHNOLOGY - tank: British invention o slow, heavy o used to et across trenches etc. - Machine Gun o 600 rounds/min: more casualties o does let you get close to enemies - airplanes o used for airborne battle and surveillance, not so much for bombing o were not used much b/c they were unpredictable and cumbersome o famous German pilot: Red Baron - Undersea boats (U-Boats) o Submarines o Germany used them to control water and trade - Poison gas o Chlorine gas and mustard gas o Gas masks become extremely important o Effects: burns, blindness, drowning from fluid in lungs EFFECTS OF WWI - little territory gained - mass casualties - destroyed terrain TRENCH LIFE - mud: collapsed walls o slowed down everyone (got stuck) o caused guns to clog o inevitable b/c rain poured into trench o wounded men dies easier b/c they would get stuck and died - hard to get supplies to men so not many people got trench boots o Trench foot became a problem b/c soldiers were useless if they couldn’t use their feet - Rats and lice everywhere o Dogs useful in getting rats trapped (the dogs also had gas masks) - Soldiers had a trench foot and louse buddy in trenches - Hygiene kits: razors, soap o Cant have bears b/c gas mask wont fit properly o Gillette contrcted to provide shaving kits STALEMATE ENDS WHEN… - U.S. enters war – adds morale to people already fighting - Russia signs treats and gets out of War o Treaty if Brest-Litovsk o Loses some territory - Germans tired of war - Armistice Day – end of WWI o Now what? – how to keep war from starting again and who to blame? - Architects of Peace met in Versailles - Great Britain, France, Italy, U.S. (the big 4) - Woodrow Wilson’s plan – The 14 Points o Know 1-3 and 14 o Great Britain and France reject The 14 Points - Treaty of Versailles o More strict on Germany o Says war is Germany’s fault, so they have to pay for everything ($$$$$) EFFECT ON THE MAP OF EUROPE FROM WWI - Austria-Hungarian Empire split into new nations WOMEN IN WWI - women took men’s jobs o made munitions, worked in mines, helped build planes, all- women fire brigades and police forces - Women’s Army Auxiliary Core o Usually soldiers in civilian populated areas - Joined Red Cross : on front lines as nurses - Woman’s suffrage o After WWI many more women could vote o U.S. women could vote in 1920 WWI EFFECTS CONT. - pessimism spread - about 17 million war casualties (10 million soldiers, 7 million civilians) - land was devastated after war o cities o crops and natural resources RATIONING - had to ration b/c crops devastated - food stamps - needed to save food for troops - rationed bread, sugar, butter, margarine, tea, potatoes, etc. o men and women were sometimes rationed different amounts based on what was being rationed - propaganda on rationing - cook books: taught people how to cook without the things that were being rationed - food black markets sprang up - Ersatz food: means substitute food o German “food” made b/c food was so scarce CIVILIAN DEATH - civilian death caused mostly b/c there was no food - some also dies because of fires, occasionally bombs, etc. - malnutrition and starvation INFLUENZA (1918-1920) - Epidemic killed about 50 million - Everyone was hungry so their immune systems were weak - This strain thrives as the immune system gets weaker o Attacked mostly young, generally healthy people o Immune system of young people strong to begin with, so the immune system had a long way to fall (thus the virus feeding more as the immune system gets weaker) - People who died from influenza were not being buried promptly, b/c not enough people to bury them - Not enough doctors or nurses b/c most were working with the troops - Called it the Spanish Flu b/c it gained more attention when it ran through Spain (which was neutral in the war) - People became afraid and paranoid about catching the flu - War death + flu death = around 67 million deaths WAR TIME INJURIES - about 20 million injured - prosthetics became more advanced and proved to be vital - b/c new medicine, people aren’t dying from these injuries but living without limbs - plastic surgery advanced - Harold Gillies o Doctor that became the forefront of plastic surery o Skin grafts o Made it where people could come back from war and still work and function in society - Shell-shock (today PTSD) o Charles Meyers: psychologist treating soldiers soon after they had been traumatized o He was close to the front lines o Military had a hard time accepting the shell-shock diagnosis (men’s minds crippled their bodies) b/c men were supposed to be able to control their fear and emotions
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