PSYC 316 Notes Week 3
PSYC 316 Notes Week 3 PSYC 316
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Karikomi on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 316 at Northern Illinois University taught by Simon Jencius in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Intro-Psycpathology in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Chapter 2 Models of Abnormality cont d Wednesday 9 September 2015 I HumanisticExistential Model A Humanistic 1 People are born good friendly cooperative constructive and have a drive for Self Actualization through evaluation of strengths and weaknesses B Existentialist 1 SelfDetermination choice responsibility and authenticity are highly important to psychological wellbeing C ClientCentered Therapy Roger s methods as a reaction to behaviorism and psychoanalysis 1 all individuals are unique and striving towards growth and selfactualization 2 Maladaptive Processes a way of thinking that causes and sustains emotional dysfunction false and unsupported beliefs a Conditions of Worth expectations we believe we need to meet in order to please our society Internalizing the conditions of worth and failure to live up to them may lead to unhappiness and lack of selfworth b Lack of Unconditional SelfRegard 3 Technique self re ection via supportive environment a Unconditional Positive Regard accepting the person for who they are b Accurate Empathy c Genuineness D Existential Philosophy brought over to Existential Therapy 1 Death is Inevitable we are all eventually going to die 2 Life Has No Inherent Meaning our job is to nd meaning 3 Evervone is Ultimatelv Alone Lovely isn39t it E Existential Therapy 1 Distress is caused by SelfDeception a People wait around for meaning rather than creating it for themselves because that s our job b Goal accept personal responsibility within a strong clienttherapist relationship c therapy is slightly more invasive humanistic therapy is a bit more clearcut F HumanisticExistential Model Summarv l HumanisticExistential Model Pros a Fills in some of the gaps left by other approaches optimistic and empathic orientation made therapy attractive HumanisticExistential Model Cons a Too abstract and not problemspeci c enough for many clients lack of scienti c support G Sociocultural Model FamilySocial and Multicultural Perspectives 1 People are a product of cultural and social forces 2 Two types of theories a milvSocialTheorV b Multiculturalism Theorv FamilySocial Therapies a What Factors Directly In uence the Individual 1 Social labels and roles a Example Diagnostic labels Rosenhan 1973 i Studied whether or not clinicians could distinguish an individual with a psychological disorder from one labeled as having a psychological disorder Labeling Theory at workone faking the symptoms b Social Connection and Social Support 1 Does social environment help or hurt the individual s wellbeing a YES If J oe s community decides that he is worthless and constantly taunts and teases him his wellbeing will be at stake If Joe grows up in a dangerous neighborhood his wellbeing will be in danger PHYSICALLY AND MENTALLY 2 Since we as humans move around a lot we are lacking social connection and support c Familv Structure and Communication 1 How does structure and communication patterns lead to abnormal behavior 2 Enmeshed or Disengaged children not having their own identity enmeshment with a child s mother may lead to Schizophrenia 3 Birth Order Effect Laterbom children are more likely to reject the ideology of the parents d Argument since problems emerge in family and social settings treatment is best delivered in such settings 1 Group Therapy one therapist 612 participants seeking treatment for a common issue a Advantages httppsychcentralcomlibaboutgrouptherapy 2 Family Therapy therapist encourages family members to communicate openly and engage in healing processes together promotes understanding and empathy 3 Couples Therapy focus is on the problems existing between the two people in the relationship psychologist mediates discussion to help identify the causes of the con icts and other issues encourages effective communication 4 Communitv Preventions informing a community about relevant concerns and ndings involves community feedback a Why are these bene cial i Power in numbers 1 peerled anonymous groups belong to the same community 2 members know they are not alone 11 Multicultural Therapies A Argument Normal behavior and abnormal behavior is better understood when examined in the light of the individual unique cultural context B Class Discussion 1 How does culture race ethnicity socioeconomic status gender and sexual orientation affect behavior and thought a Norms vary across cultures races ethnicities SES genders and sexual orientations 2 How does prejudice and discrimination affect psychological functioning a On the receiving end of prejudice and discrimination I Learned Helplessness oppressed group may give up hope of their situation s improvement III Sociocultural Models Summary A Bene ts Focuses on the unique individual and their life history the eld can no longer ignore the in uence of multiculturalism B Problems very dif cult to research Chapter 3 Clinical Assessment Diagnosis and Treatment Wednesday 9 September 2015 Clinical Assessment Diagnosis and Treatment Assessment Purpose collect as much relevant information as possible to reach a conclusion Clinical Psychology Assessment how and why does abnormality exist for this person What are the symptoms When do they occur Is the treatment working I Clinical Assessment How and Why Does the Client Behave Abnormally A Assessment collecting relevant information to reach a conclusion 1 Clinical Assessment Why is a person behaving abnormally How can they be helped What are the symptoms When do they occur Is the treatment working Idiographic focus is on one person 3 Also may be used to evaluate progress of treatment B Three Categories of Clinical Assessment Tools 1 Clinical Interviews 2 m 3 Observations II Characteristics of Assessment Tools A Assessment Tools must be standardized and have clear reliability and validity a Standardization administration under the same conditions and scoring according to the same procedures every time b Reliability Is the tool consistently measuring the behavior it is supposed to l TestRetest Reliability 2 Interrater Reliability c Validity Does the tool measure what we believe we are measuring Does this tool tell me if someone falls under the chosen categories in the test 1 Face Validity 2 Predictive Validity 3 Concurrent Validity The Importance Of Standardization for the assessment to be useful the administration scoring and interpretation must be standardized to be measured the same way whenever the test is administered a Standardizing a Technique set up common steps that can be replicated whenever the test is given IIIClinical Interview 1 Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM most reliable and valid structuredsemistructured interview Unstructured Interview patient describes what is happening in their life their symptoms and what they believe is the most important to their sessions Advantages a cover a lot of information quickly Disadvantages a Patient s dishonesty faking goodbad b Social desirability and stigma I don t want them to think I m getting therapy because they ll think I m crazy c Observer Bias judgement errors d Subjective l The Antisocial Veteran First encounter between a client and a clinician purpose is to collect details about the client especially their personal history Determine what is the most important topic on which to focus a The focus chosen depends on the theory the interviewer follows B Conducting the Interview 1 2 Unstructured Interview asking openended questions to the patient Structured Interview asking prepared questions according to an alreadyestablished schedule a Mental Status Exam httpwwwpsychpagecomleaminglibraryassessmsehtm C Limitations of Clinical Interviews 1 Validity and accuracy are not guaranteed patient client may not be truthful Unstructured interviews may also lack reliability Biases interviewers may have a bias against the patientclient thus unfairly in uencing their judgement of patientclient IV Clinical Tests Gathering information about someone s psychological functioning information is used to interpret or infer more information A Proiective Tests tests that employ ambiguous stimuli that evoke revealing aspects of the testtaker s personality 1 2 Nomothetic determining rules that explain general occurrences objective Idiographic determining the meaning of unique information of an individual subjective Main tests used by Psychodynamic Clinicians openended a Popular tests include 1 Rorschach Test 1921 Participant is shown a card with an ambiguous inkblot and responds with a description of what they see in the image Their response tone of voice and gestures are recorded and analyzed a httppsychcentralcomlibrorschachinkblottest 2 Thematic Apperception Test TAT Participant is shown an ambiguous scene and asked to tell the story behind the scene who the people in the image are what they are doing how they feel how the story ends etc a httpwwwminddisorderscomPyZThematicApperceptionTesthtml 3 Sentence Completion Test Participant is presented with the beginning pieces of a sentence that they are to complete I feel upset when It bothers me that 4 DrawingsDrawaPerson gDAP Test usually administered to children a asked to draw three individuals a man a woman and themselves b Many aspects of the drawings are examined including proportion presence or absence of detail and even clothing c This test helps to infer a child s cognitive developmental levels through a noninvasive process i View the Goodenough Scoring Guide here mm deptswashingtonedudbpedsScreening20ToolsGoodenough 20Draw20a20Persondoc 4 Proiective Test Pros 3 b 0 Openended Provides supplementary information and an idea of the individual s internal processing There is normative data statistics of responses to certain images 5 Proiective Test Cons 3 b C d 6 Not consistent in reliability or validity Timeconsuming to administer and interpret Questionable reliability interrater reliability Limited utility mostly used to determine the presence of psychoticism Bias against minority ethnic groups 1 Cynical explanation about our knowledge of psychology is based on things like PSYCH 102 Looking at the specifics of culture and minorities and how the different people think has been greatly understudied Different cultures might respond differently than the majorities a BE THE CHANGE fill in the blanks with research just an idea for your tenyear plan 6 Personality Inventories 3 b C d 6 Measures a person s broad personality characteristics Focuses on the person s beliefs feelings and behaviors Based on selfreported responses Interpretations based on research done in large populations Minnesota Multiphasic Personalitv Inventorv f g 1 MMPIMMPIZ a Participant is asked over 500 selfstatement questions about their physical concerns their mood social activities and sexual behaviors with the options of choice True False Cannot Say b Most widely used test c 500 questions d Ten Clinical Scales i Hypochondriasis hyperawareness of bodily functions ii Depression iii Hysteria idea that a person might unconsciously decide to use physical or mental symptoms to avoid con ict iv Psychopathic Deviate v MasculinityFemininity vi Paranoia vii Psychasthenia abnormal fears compulsions obsessions indecisiveness and feelings of guilt viiiSchizophrenia ix Hypomania overexcitement hyperactivity etc X Social Introversion e The 4 Validity Scales i Lie Scale Used to identify those deliberately trying to affect their results faking good or faking bad Scale covers 15 items ii F Scale Used to identify abnormal ways of answering test questions randomly lling out test Scale covers 60 items regarding abnormal thoughts unpleasant emotions or experiences self descriptions and expectations iii Back F Scale Measures the same things as the F Scale but only on the last half of the test covering 40 items iv K Scale Measures selfcontrol and relationships to identify psychopathology in otherwise normal individuals Scale covers 30 items The Big Five five broad dimensions of personality 1 Openness to Experience 2 Conscientiousness 3 Extraversion 4 Agreeableness 5 Neuroticism Personalitv Inventorv Pros 1 Fast easy and cheap way to administer compared to projective tests 2 Scored and standardized objectively 3 There has been lots of research on normative responses 7 h 4 Greater testretest reliability and validity compared to projective tests Personalitv Inventorv Cons 1 Although they appear to have greater validity than projective tests they should not be considered highly valid because traits cannot be directly examined and labeled as a correct assessment 2 Since it is selfreported responses an individual may try to achieve a certain outcome by modifying their responses faking bad or faking good 3 Tests do not take cultural differences into consideration When analyzing test I39CSpOIlSCS Response Inventories 3 b d Affective Inventories 1 Beck Depression Inventory a multiplechoice test of 21 selfreport inventory questions that measures the severity of one s depression a httpmhinnovationnetsitesdefaultfilesdownloadsinnovationresearch BDI2OWith2Ointerpretationpdf Social Skills Inventories assessment of basic social skills that comprises social competence evaluates verbal and nonverbal communication skills strengths and weaknesses I httpadvancedpsychcaretripodcomsitebuildercontentsitebuilderfiles socialskillspdf Coqnitive Inventories identifying behavior patterns that are habitual unconscious and deliberate help individuals to understand their cognitive tendencies advising developmental strategies that can help the individual use their cognitive style to their benefit etc 1 httpWWWbeckinstituteorgbeckinventoryandscales Emotion Regulation Inventories assessing strategies for the regulation of negative and positive emotions 1 Children s Emotion Regulation Inventory httpmromasseyacnzhandle 10 17 953 65 Resnonsive Inventorv Pros 1 Quick and easy to administer 2 Strong face validity Responsive Inventorv Cons 1 Largely based on selfreported responses 2 Single focus on one area of functioning 8 3 Few elements of responsive inventory tests have been checked for standardization reliability or validity procedures Psychophysiological Tests a a person s physiological response is measured and interpreted that response as an indication of a psychological problem 1 Heart rate blood pressure etc b Polygraph c Psvchonhvsioloqical Test Pros I Tells us about the important processes in emotional eXperience d Psvchonhvsioloqical Test Cons 1 Test administration is timeconsuming 2 The highmaintenance equipment is eXpensive 3 Tests can be unreliable and inaccurate Neurological and Neuropsychological Tests a Neuroloqical Tests assess brain function according to its structure and activity b Brain Imaging c Assess brain structure and function 1 M magnetic resonance imaging 2 CT computerized tomography 3 ET positron emission topography 4 m functional magnetic resonance imaging d Almost exclusively used in research and rarely in clinical practice 1 Very eXpensive and time consuming to train and administer e Helps to gather knowledge of brain structures and neurochemicals involved in different human eXperiences and emotional states
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