Stem cell notes 3/1 and 3/3
Stem cell notes 3/1 and 3/3 3260
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by AnnaCiara on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3260 at University of Connecticut taught by Dr. Conover in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Stem Cell Biology in Physiology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Lecture 11: Adult Neural Stem Cells and Neurogenesis 3/1 Overview: CNS development Embryonic niche Adult NSC Niches o cytoarchitecture and signals o output and functions o injury/repair CNS Cell types Neurons Glia o Oligodendrocytes: produce myelin o Astrocytes: o Ependymal cells epithelial cells that line ventricles o Microglia - immune cells of CNS Neurogenesis in the Embryo Ventricular system Neural Tube Induction o A) Brain development Earliest NSCs o Early embryo: up to E9 in mouse Embryonic and Early Postnatal NSCs in Telencephalon Adult NSC Neural stem cells: cortical development Detection of Neural Stem Cells [H^3]-thymidine - incorporates into DNA during replication - S-phase o radio labeling o used before there were antibodies to define cell types Thought initially that only astrocytes and microglial cells proliferated 1960s: dentate gyrus of hippocampus, neocortex and lateral wall of lateral ventricle were found to have proliferative cells o 1990s: Resurgence of adult neural stem cell research BrdU (1982): bromodeocyuridine, synthetic thymidine analog, S-phase Rapidly, inexpensively and safely detected by immunocytochemistry Retroviral vectors: transduce a reporter transgene into genome of proliferating cells, passed to all progeny and generations Neurogenesis required for learning new songs 2dif regions in mouse brain: Lateral Wall of the Lateral Ventricle Hippocampal dentate gyrus SVZ Niche 4 cell types o Ependyma Multiciliated (motile) postmitotic o Type A (neuroblasts) highly migratory immature neurons o Type C (transit amplifying progenitors) highly proliferative, immature phenotype o Type B (astrocytes) slowly dividing cells enshealth neuroblasts SVZ cytoarchitecture Continuation of neural stem cell function SVZ Adult neurogenesis in DG Increased by learning, exercise and antidepressants Decreased by stress and aging Pathological conditions Group 3 Discussion 3/3 #1 News & Views: Emergency back-up for lung repair Emma L. Rawlins 2015 New stem cell line found in lungs that repairs after flu infection Compare and contrast Vaughn and Zuo papers Need more regulation in mouse models #2 Zuo Paper Discovery of certain cell types in lungs that aid in lung repair Potential therapy for both acute and chronic lung disease Preform lineage tracing of Krt5+ cells following viral infection dpi = days post infection distal is lower lung and some bronchioles proximal is upper tubes air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures Cloned lung stem cell integration into damaged lung o infected mice with H1N1 (swine flu) found distribution of stem cell line o control mice not infected with H1N1 didn't have recruitment of the cells - means they only happen when there is damage o gave rise to multiple types of epithelial cell types found in the lung used proliferation marker and cells are proliferating #3 Vaughn paper Type 2 cells, alveolar cells, secrete surfactant Lineage-Negative Epithelial stem/progenitor cells (LNEP) Tamoxifen activates Cre population of cells contributing to tissue repair is dependent on injury extent inhibition of Notch limits cell proliferation honeycombing
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