History weekly notes
History weekly notes HIST 1493
Popular in United States: 1865 to the Present
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elise Wright on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1493 at University of Oklahoma taught by Kathleen Brosnan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see United States: 1865 to the Present in History at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Objective questions 1 How did the US become the world s leading industrial power 2 How did workers respond to the changes in working conditions under increased industrialization Lecture Industrialization and Labor McCormick s patented reaper machine Played key role in helping industrialize agricultural America Involved in industrialization process by which a society or nation transforms itself from a primarily Transforms American politics and law Allow the US to build overseas empire Eventually touched every aspect of American life The great deflation prices fall signal of economic stagnation supply has outstripped demand However the US gross domestic product is still going up because the US was a new industrial power Consequently it had new infrastructure compared to England which allows it to have greater efficiency in production US could then manufacture goods and sell them at lower prices Factors in economic growth Technological advances Legal and financial innovations Concentration of capital Demand for capital goods goods that add to the productive capacity of the economy Vertical integration the combination of all phases of manufacturing into one operation Horizontal integration controlling one aspect Capital goods relied on steel because it was lighter harder more durable Andrew Carnegie build his own steel mill used vertical integration coal production doubled after civil war because it was a source of cheap energy corporation helped to boost railroads and factories most common form of business organization chartered by states stockholders become owners wanted to invest in corporation because of limited liability risked only the money they invested concentrated capital Gustavus swift refrigerated cars so cow butchering could take place in Chicago mass production used dedicated machines to repeat the same tasks trade unions evolved from Trade Associations Procure benefits and protect members from unfair labor practices Organized around specific trades Often included skilled workers Do not con ate all labor organizations with trade unions trade unions are a part of labor organizations knights of labor hoped to organize all members of the working class regardless of skill level trade or race More egalitarian more just society Focus on producers or workers Open national political by 1878 Welcomed all workers except Chinese immigrants moved beyond organizing by specific trade Challenged economic system Samuel Gompers Founder of the American Federation of Labor Pure and Simple Unionism focused on achievable ends Rejected undifferentiated organization Shop floor over politics Accepted economic system sought bigger share for his workers Haymarket Square Chicago was a general strike for an 8 hour workday Haymarket legacy was significant to stall 8 hour day campaign Blacklists Employers required their workers to sign yellow dog contracts which made them promise not to strike or join a union Knights of labor collapse by 1900 Wobblies radicals industrial workers of the world Big bill haywood was leader who pushed for strikes boycotts amp propaganda American federation of labor was an umbrella Trade unions imposed a conservative stamp on American labor they were not radicals they did not seek to overthrow the economic system They were focused on protecting their own members which brought success for certain trade unions Lecture Objectives Was the US a frontier of independence self reliance and egalitarianism as described by the historian Frederick Jackson Turner South had entrepreneurs and railroads West remained dependent on outside capital and government aid William Jackson Palmer Entrepreneurship and dependency Founded Colorado Springs Wanted workers and laborers to live in harmony Launched Denver and Rio Grande Railway Leased federal mineral lands coal and iron Helped launch first steel plant in Pueblo Relied on outside investors from East Goulds and Rockefellers moved in and took over his steel company There was an extractive economy it consisted primarily of identifying resources extracting them and transporting them elsewhere for manufacture 60 of the workers in the west worked in extractive activities Comparatively the rest of the nation was about 33 The mining ranching and farming in the American west involved the exploitation of the region s natural environment An extractive economy requires Markets for its commodities Access to sufficient capital from investors and government Transportation system for trees and mineral of long distances heavy loads and low costs Government allowed miner companies to extract resources from land San Francisco emerges as a major city for mining They could not provide enough capital for their region Because money was scarce in the West it was more expensive to borrow it Placer mining looking in water for mineral deposits Eventually these mining operations would grow into vertical integrations Smelters reduced rocks by hard chemicals to create minerals Lode mining looking for minerals underground Required coal for machinery which were not cheap Westerners had to turn East for capital Hydraulic mining built reservoir in mountains and take water canons to put on hill to wash away the sides to get to mineral Literally made mountains into rivers Canyons were filled 100 feet deep was gravel and dirt Sacramento flood occurred because of mining debris that filled rivers Ruined 100000 acres of farmland Miners sought 8 hour work day Higher wages Safer working conditions Fellow servants had no liability or responsibility for accidents Doctrine of Assumed risk miners knew about and accepted dangers of job so shouldn t be able to recover injuries There were few benefits for the disabled and no death benefits for widows or orphans The homestead act of 1862 re ected the Republican party s belief that free land would promote economic opportunity Growing demand for wheat in 1870 s Wheat frontier New perceptions of arability Monocultural production Wheat rustdisease resistant varieties was a big problem Limited rainfall presented the greatest challenge which made it hard to grow crops Farmers mistakenly believed climate malleable Farmers could get land from the Homestead Act Farmers needed 2 things for success on the Plains Reliable water Effective way to get their crops to market which were provided by Railroads and Grain elevators These grain elevators and railroads consolidated small quantities of grain which severed ownership The idealization and Romanization of the cowboy that occurred after open range grazing disappeared in the US west produced similar celebrations of gauchos and vaqueros in Argentina and Mexico Iconic Western figures had dangerous low paying socially isolating jobs Miners turned to unions for protection
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