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JOUR 3190 Chapter 8 Notes

by: Kyla Brinkley

JOUR 3190 Chapter 8 Notes JOUR 3190

Kyla Brinkley
GPA 3.8

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Notes for Chapter 8 of the textbook!
Journalism Writing
Thomas Hudson
Class Notes
journalism, writing
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kyla Brinkley on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JOUR 3190 at University of Georgia taught by Thomas Hudson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Journalism Writing in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 03/03/16
Kyla Brinkley JOUR 3190 Spring 2015 Chapter 8 Notes Basics of Broadcasting I. Introduction a. Today since news and information washes over us 24/7, we don’t have time to worry about whether its more interesting in print or broadcast b. News organizations try to gather, verify, and present information in a way that enables the consumer to make decisions on how to live c. “sense-making journalism”–basics for any type of good journalism are the same II. What’s the Same a. Basics of good journalism: accuracy, attention to detail, compelling information, solid attribution, great writing b. Accuracy i. No substitute for accuracy ii. Perception of being biased or misinformed can be just as damaging as not getting basic facts correct iii. In age of “spin” this can be one word c. Attention to Detail i. Strong writing uses details for their full effect ii. Can be important to text-based stories to help people see or experience it d. Compelling Information i. Careful presentation of info creates meaning for viewers and helps move them toward some universal human truth ii. Difference between regurgitating facts and painting vivid picture iii. The “why” that journalists strive to answer e. Appropriate and Solid Attribution i. Internet has increased need for solid attribution ii. Differentiates amateur blogger from professional journalist iii. Credibility has to be earned, and attribution helps transparency iv. Important in gaining trust f. Great Writing i. Short, compelling sentences with proper word order are the cornerstone of good journalism ii. This essential to reporting/writing hasn’t changed whether you work for newspaper, radio, TV, or online news site III. What’s Different a. Stress the Visual i. Television is visual: pictures dominate ii. Viewers expect exciting and interesting images iii. Best stories weave sight and sound into a unified whole iv. Reporter is a guide for this medium b. Stress the Moment i. Strength of broadcast news is timeliness ii. “live and late-breaking” iii. the news just happened iv. brings latest updates for viewers v. element of the unexpected c. Stress the Simple i. Broadcast’s linearity is a constraint on storytelling ii. Viewer can only process info in the way it is presented iii. Most narrative storytelling is chronological-better iv. Forces us to tell story as simply as possible and pay attention to structure IV. How These Principles Affect Practices a. Smaller Staffs i. TV stations have fallen in status and influence ii. News depts. have trimmed staff positions while increasing expectations iii. Stations operate with just enough people on staff to meet the normal demands of events in the area iv. Fewer beats, more general assignments v. Radio Staffing 1. Much smaller than TV or cable news operations 2. Less work space needed 3. Positions a. News director b. Anchor c. Reporter vi. TV Staffing 1. Larger, more task specific 2. Rely more on teamwork 3. Positions a. News director b. Producer c. Assignment editor (assignment manager) d. Anchor (talent) e. Reporter f. Photographer g. Video editor h. Graphic artist i. Studio production staff j. Field producer/editor b. Reliance on Visuals i. Because of TV’s reliance on images and sound, reporters and editors have to present info in a clear linear fashion that won’t confuse the viewer ii. Basic Visual Principles 1. Framing is most basic and essential: idea you want to focus on should dominate the screen 2. Use tripod whenever possible 3. 4 basic shots a. WS/LS (wide, long shot) i. Better for TV b. MS (medium shot) c. CU (close up) d. ECU (extreme close up) i. Better for online because of smaller screen 4. Try to have action or movement in every shot 5. Avoid shooting people from behind as they walk away and anything unflattering 6. Record each shot for 5 -10 seconds iii. Editing Basics 1. Shot you use to introduce your package is ES (establishing shot) a. Establishes for viewer where story is taking place b. Usually a wide shot or medium shot 2. Think in terms of sequence, not series 3. Never edit together motion to motion shots 4. Maintain line of action (180-degree rule) 5. Avoid jump cuts that come when scenes that are too similar are edited together 6. Whenever there’s a jump cut the blame goes to editor 7. The time to start thinking of editing is when you’re in the field shooting the video 8. Some stories are better told with video, some aren’t iv. Writing Visually 1. Writing to visuals is learned 2. Think ahead about images and pictures that can be presented with the story 3. Use charts/animated graphics etc. 4. Provide reactions with sound bites c. Notion and Use of Time i. In broadcast news all processes/content production issues revolve around time ii. TV is time sensitive iii. Timeliness is a key consideration for determining what makes good TV news iv. Difference between broadcast and print is narrowing on this point v. The Live Newscast 1. Anchors appear in real time to present the news 2. Brings viewers latest news & information 3. Downside: local news stations featuring lonely reported describing things that happened hours earlier, potential loss of control 4. No second takes vi. Writing Stories to Time 1. Stories must adhere to constraints related to time 2. Forms of TV news stories a. Reader b. Voice over c. VO/SOT d. Package i. Reporter’s recorded story ii. Part of news program branding is to emphasize the personalities presenting the information e. Telling stories with pictures—the video essay vii. Newscast comes together in the rundown: document that integrates all the stories in various forms plus graphics, commercials, teases, tosses, and music stings viii. Producer weaves everything into coherent whole d. Personality: The Reporter Is Talent i. Age of celebrity ii. Reporters participate in events iii. Personal brand 1. Start with good script 2. Speak with monotone then vary to add emphasis a. Inflection of pitch of voice b. Amplitude or volume of speech c. Pauses/silence 3. Format of the script a. Written to time b. Easy to read c. Broadcast ready iv. Overall presentation 1. Authoritative 2. Friendly 3. Folksy 4. Energetic 5. Sincere e. Broadcast Writing Style i. Broadcast writing is more conversational ii. Good usage and grammar are critical in broadcast because listener/viewer doesn’t have a second chance to figure out what you’re saying iii. Key points 1. Listeners can’t go back and relisten a. Put titles before names b. Avoid abbreviations 2. Numbers almost always written out from 1-11 a. 12-999 numerals used b. greater than 999 written out: 25 hundred, 64 thousand c. avoid “three point seven million”, say “close to four million d. street addresses hyphenated 3. avoid quoting someone in text 4. use of present tense verbs common


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