New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

EXSC 224 Week 8 Notes

by: Jane Warther

EXSC 224 Week 8 Notes Exsc 224

Jane Warther
GPA 3.953

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover what we covered in class Tuesday plus some review.
Anatomy and Physiology 224
Dr. Thompson
Class Notes
Human Anatomy and Physiology
25 ?




Popular in Anatomy and Physiology 224

Popular in Education and Teacher Studies

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jane Warther on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Exsc 224 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Thompson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 224 in Education and Teacher Studies at University of South Carolina.

Similar to Exsc 224 at USC

Popular in Education and Teacher Studies


Reviews for EXSC 224 Week 8 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/04/16
3/1/2016 Chp. 16 Gonads Females  Estrogen­ steroid o Alone  Maturation of female reproductive organs  Sex characteristics o Lack of testosterone results in female genitalia  o Under control of hypothalamus Progesterone­ steroid  o In combination with estrogen   Breast development   Menstrual cycle regulation  o Not made in same pathway as estrogen   Produce cortisol and aldosterone from progesterone  o Not responsible for primary formation of secondary sex characteristics o Causes down­regulation of estrogen receptors o Promotes development of endometrium furthers so that is prepared for fertilized   egg or corpus luteum dies  o Under control of hypothalamus  Menopause­ cessation of menstruation  o One calendar year without a period  o No more ovulation o Can’t become pregnant naturally  Gonads Males   Testosterone o DHT is the variant, helps to produce male pattern baldness   Not normally present in large amounts  o Responsible for secondary sex male characteristics  o Coming down from high levels of testosterone is when aggression occurs  o  Andropause­ age related decline in circulating testosterone  o Not like menopause  o Age of 25 on , testosterone levels in men decrease   Throughout rest of life, levels will decrease   Associated with beer gut   Women who have had testosterone exposure earlier in life more  likely to experience this too   Will produce testosterone for rest of life unless castrated or given meds Renin­angiotensin­aldosterone system (RAAS) Ace inhibitors (treat hypertension)affect this pathway this pathways is unique with how it is activated and regulated  more of a long­term regulator than an acute regulator  under humoral regulation  liver produces angiotensin o produced at constant rate­ low but constant rate o not regulated  o renin , the enzyme that activates the pathway, is regulated  1. Decrease in renal perfusion  o Activation of pathway is regulated by kidneys  o Kidneys regulate water reabsorption and detect change blood pressure  High blood pressure produce urine  Low blood pressure save water, no urine  Produce enzyme called renin   BP falls secrete renin Enters blood stream, converts angiotensin to angiotensin I How we activate renin­angiotensin­ aldosterone system  2. Angiotensin I o Weak weak hormone  o Has to be converted to angiotensin II to activate a potent hormone o Converted in lungs  Lungs has angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) o Angiotensin II  Very potent hormone  Can help stimulate sympathetic activity  Stimulate aldosterone secretion Reabsorb water and sodium   Will cause blood vessels to constrict   Induces secretion of ADH Reabsorb more water in kidneys   As a result blood pressure will go up  Pathway causes of BP to rise o Helps regulate BP o Altered pharmacologically to reduce BP   ACE inhibitors stop ACE from converting 1 to 2 Less expensive   Angiotensin II receptor blocker Prevent them binding to their receptor which stops all that  angiotensin does  Under negative feedback regulation  Leptin Produced by adipocytes o Circulates through blood , goes to hypothalamus, causes decreases in appetite(feel full) Regulates eating behavior  Inhibits hunger, promotes satiety factor  Goes up following a meal , goes back down sometime later and you get hungry  Secreted after a meal when nutrients are high Insulin doesn’t cause an increase in leptin Atrial Natriuretic Peptide  (ANP)  Cardiac distension   ANP is an antagonistic to aldosterone   Aldosterone causes sodium reabsorption, water follows, produce less urine  ANP inhibits secretion and actions of aldosterone, don’t reabsorb sodium, don’t reabsorb  water, produce more urine  Pathways is talking about ANP  Signal is the effects of increase of blood volume on the heart o Increase in blood volume, more blood returns to heart, place stretch on cells of  heart, that stretch signals heart to secrete ANP, inhibit aldosterone, produce more  urine decreasing blood volume and decreasing stretch of heart cells  Under negative feedback control  What should I know for the Exam? What is the endocrine system and how does it work? o What are its components? o How does it work? Hormones o Site of secretion o Regulation o Action o Pathology Which hormones have: o Positive or negative feedback regulation  o Similar action  ADH and aldosterone both cause water conservation  Synergistic hormones Aldosterone- Causes sodium reabsorption that leads to water conservation  Regulation- potassium, BP, stress  Urine output: concentrated urine but not high sodium levels o May have potassium levels ADH- secreted by hypothalamus  Operates by aquaporins o Allow for reabsorption of water in nephrons but has nothing to do with sodium  Regulated by urine osmality  Increased in ADH secretion, decrease urine production o Concentration of urine will go up though o Urine may have elevated sodium concentrations o Urine may have high potassium levels Goiter – not specific to hypo or hyper thyroidism  Presence of goiter means you have an overactive thyroid  Different causes of it that can lead to different concentrations of thyroid hormone Cushing’s syndrome- vague  Elevated cortisol  Don’t know reason why Cushing’s disease-  Elevated cortisol  We know causes o Causes is increase in ACTH that stimulates cortisol  Increase in BP, blood sodium , high blood volume, high blood glucose Addison’s disease  Hypo-secretion of cortisol or aldosterone  Cause could be low ACTH  Opposite of Cushing’s Quiz 6 1. Name the stress hormones.  Cortisol  Epinephrine 2. Males and females secrete androgens from the adrenal medulla.  False , secrete from adrenal cortex 3. What stress hormone increases Glycogenolysis(breakdown of glycogen)? -epinephrine Increases gluconeogenesis ?- cortisol 4. Which endocrine disorder causes polydipsia, polyuria, and polyphagia?- diabetes mellitus 5. Three hormones increase blood glucose. What is the antagonistic to insulin?- glucagon


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.