ANFS140 Week of 02/29/16
ANFS140 Week of 02/29/16 140
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Schmuckler on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 140 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. Robert Dyer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Functional Anatomy of Domestic Animals in General Science at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
Bone Connective Tissue 4 types of cells Mesenchymal Cell Osteoprogenitor cell Osteoblast 0 Cell division 0 Synthesize and secrete bone 0 Deposit matrix to form lacunae Osteocyte o Buried in bone matrix 0 lntercannaliculi arms projecting off of osteocyte that travels through the matrix to attach to another osteocyte in a different lacuna Osteoclast o Derived by fusion of monocytes white blood cells multinucleated syncytium o Resorbs extracellular components of bone Hyaluronin proteoglycans water collagen calcium hydroxyapatite HCI lMetaphysis Endostium Sub Chandra bone 39Cancelluos bane Spicules Dr Trabeculae Subchondral Bone A icular Cartilage Cancc uus YEHOW Bone Marrow Adipose Bone Articular hya ne cartilage Dense Bone of Diaphysis Hillilli l h is Mrlxd lii nrsis l39r39nmlrul ll lll39lltffs 7 Diulillji39siis Nutrient artery diaphysis Dense bone o Nutrients enter the bone in arteries that pass through the dense bone nutrient foramens 0 Can enter in the epiphysis diaphysis or metaphysis o Artery splits into branches once inside the bone that run proximally and distally along the length of the bone 0 Eventually penetrate back into the bone that later branch and run up and down the length of the dense bone distribute nutrients remove waste 0 Blood supply is centrifugal blood ow in but the rest of the ow is from the center outwards Pass through periosteum l through dense bone via nutrient foramen l through endosteum to enter cancellous bone area up and down marrow cavity l pass back into endosteum and dense via the Volksman s Canal up and down the length of the dense bone via the Haversian s Canal lmeet osteocytes in lacunae to deliver nutrients I quot mmmmmM H39em llmlcememlmel 3 39 3M2 yi4ah wh rmWMWM mw g V I 39 gt H Cgmmunicatgng quot quot v canal v Euler Z KimmieEmmi lawn u i H 11jllll 39fl pg l p5 Mummmwwmgea uh nquot m quotEliquot I lmluml 39 lijs wmmmmWMl I 39 i l l E Fd mawmmm l I a sluncyluwmm 39 i T a 7 Ii Cie t Underneath the endosteal membrane there are circumferential ameae layers of bone 0 Mesenchymal stem cells l osteoprogenitor cells l osteoblasts 0 Outer layer of irregular dense brous connective tissue that has broblasts and mesenchymal stem cells that differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells and then to osteoblasts 0 Inner layer of osteoblasts Sit on the outer layer of circumferential ameae Synthesize and secrete bone matrix 0 Inside the dense bone there are multiple osteonsHaversian system 0 Circumferential rings of bone that sit around the Haversian Canal 0 Long axis of the column long axis of bone Versus Volksman Canal which runs perpendicular o Lacunae with osteocytes inside osteon Nutrients out of Haversian canal into osteon into canaliculi into lacunae Underneath the periosteal membrane there are more circumferential ameae 0 Outer layer of irregular dense brous connective tissue that has broblasts and mesenchymal stem cells that differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells and then to osteoblasts 0 Inner layer of osteoblasts Sit on the outer layer of circumferential ameae Synthesize and secrete bone matrix Cellular wmlwm r endosteum Haversian system osteon Cortical e dmlEu i a L Inner cumigumiIarPnllnal lam lm Danie313135 am Iacu ae quot V e La f c o W Blood ow in dense bone Haversian SystemsOsteon o Oriented parallel to the long axis of the bone 0 Central haversian canal with concentric lamella of bone centered around it Osteocytes sit in lacunae within the rings of bone and are oriented around haversian canal 0 Attached to collagen bers that are inside the lacunae 0 Long arms that travel down canaliculi to attach tocommunicate with other cells Dense Bone Structure 0 Appositional bone deposition by osteoblasts of periosteum creates circunfrential lamella 34 layers of bone 0 Thousands of osteons packed together 0 Oriented around a Haversian Canal and parallel to long axis of bone 0 Single osteon consists of concentric lamella of bone all oriented around a central haversian canal o Haversian systems are constantly turning over Osteoclasts synthesize and secrete HCI and enzymes to break down extracellular matrix and resorb bone Cells attached to collagen bers are oriented parallel with the force of the bone ie femur up and down 0 Causes osteoclasts to digest bone in that orientation Appositional Interstitial Bone Growth Growth in width Arranged in layers around the entire circumference of the diaphysis Expands outer circumference of bone Eventually remodeled into osteon by cutting and closing cones of remodeling functions Deposit bonecircumferential lamellae under periosteum osteoprogenitors osteoblasts resorb bone under endosteum osteoclasts Generating lots of circumferential lamellae around bone Osteoblasts and osteoclasts have coordinated activity Circumferential lamellae remodeled into osteons overtime Appositional bone deposition interstitial bone growth Periosteum brous connective tissue Constant turnover of bone Calcium used by all cells in the body to signal Eclampsia calcium levels drop no contraction in muscles results in death Endochondral Ossi cation Growth in length Hyaline cartilage of epiphyseal plate metaphysis Pushes epiphysis away from diaphysis o Chondrocyte replication and production of cartilage components hyaluronin proteoglycans collagen bers Chondrocytes hypertrophy enlarge and die Cartilage becomes vascularized 0 Blood cells into tissue to deliver in ammatory cells that clean out dead tissue 0 Blood vessels deliver mesenchymal stem cells to cartilage matrix that turns into osteoprogenitor cells l osteoblasts o Osteoblasts synthesize new bone components to replace cartilage components Epiphyse a1 end Proliferation Hypertrophy calci cation Diaphyseall end 7 3 quotbone formation 0 Articular cartilage not on picture above epiphyseal plate 0 Zones of cartilage 0 Reserve zone of chondrocytes o Chondrocytes proliferate isogenous groups Cartilage matrix formed lacunae present Nutrients delivered through compressionrelease of cartilage sponge analogy o Chondrocytes hypertrophy The more the matrix the harder it is for the nutrients to diffuse to cells Cell death 0 Calci cation Blood vessels grow into dying cartilage in attempt to repair it Vascularized cartilage turns to bone Bone vessels contain mesenchymal stem cells Androgens testosterone slow the process down Trabeculae dying cartilage that has bone being deposited around it Osteoprogenitor Cells 0 Mitotic cell Generates progency cells 0 From mesenchymal stem cell 0 Found throughout bone periosteum endosteum Volksman and Haversian canals Osteoblasts 0 Early progeny of osteoprogenitor cell Synthesizees and deposits extrcellular components of bone hyaluronin collagen proteoglycans hydroxyapatite crystals o Hydroxyapatite crystals calcium and phosphorous CaPO4 Found in periosteum endosteum and closing cone of remodeling structures Osteocytes Mature osteoblast develops from osteoblasts that encase themselves in extracellular bone components Exists in lacuna Connected to other osteoprogenitor cell series by long cytoplasmic arms that adhere to arms of other osteocytesosteoblasts o Cytoplasmic arms exist in canaliculi channels extending from lacunatolacuna Endogenous cell of bone found throughout dense and cancellous bone Retains ability to synthesize as well as reabsorb extracellular bone components 0 Involved in calcium homeostasis and maintaining bone integrity Osteoclasts One cell type from myeloid white blood cell lineage Osteoclast is multinucleated cell formed by fusion of several cells together Osteoclast o Monocytic series of myeloid lineage white blood cells Location endosteum and cutting cone of remodeling structures Function reabsorption of extracellular bone components Enzymatic digestion of collagen bers hyaluronan proteoglycans Synthesize and secrete proteases to digest components Acidic solubilization of hydroxyapitate crystals Osteoclast synthesize and secrete H Hydroxyapitate Osteocyte 0139 crystals Osteoblast k H I Collagen ber 0511600310111quot V I quot Hydroxyap Mate crystals Osteocalcin Osteoectin o Calciumbinding proteins Synthesized by osteocyte or osteoblast Unique to bone extracellular matrix Forms nucleus of which hydroxyapatite crystals precipitate out onto OOO Bone Remodeling growth reversal lines Clos39ng Cone cumng osteoblasts osteoid Process 0 Osteoclasts absorb bone matrix Osteoclasts penetrate the bone hot marble in butter and align themselves along the force of the bone most commonly a vertical force Enzymatic digestion of organic components and acidic solubilization of hydroxyapitate crystals 0 New vascularization of hole from cutting cone Mesenchymal stem cells dragged in with new blood vessel that sits inside new Haversian canal Osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts formed 0 New bone formation Osteoblasts deposit bone matrix inside Haversian canal New concentric lamellae of bone formed around central canal of Haversian system In the closing cone 0 End result new Haversian system
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