PSYCH 3070: Human Sexuality, week 8 notes
PSYCH 3070: Human Sexuality, week 8 notes Psych 3070
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison Carr on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3070 at Bowling Green State University taught by Patrick Nebl in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
PSYCH 3070 Human SexualityI Spring Semester 2016 Week 8 Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome AIS quotXYquot individuals buts raised female Body unable to detect and respond to androgens Normal external female appearance and feminized external genitalia 0 Short blindending vagina Absence of internal female genitalia no fallopian tubes uterus or cervix o Undescended testicles At puberty normal female development 0 Breasts etc Often female gender identity heterosexual orientation 5 Reductase De ciency quotXYquot but raised female Unable to convert T to DHT Feminized external genitalia 0 Short blindending vagina Uterus and fallopian tubes absent 0 MIH secreted normally Testes epididymis vas deferens and seminal vesicles intact Often misdiagnosed as AIS at birth At puberty penis enlargement shoulders broaden hips narrow no breast development facial hair grows Adam s apple prominent ImperatoMcGinley et al 1979 o Examined 38 subjects with 5 Reductase De ciency o 18 raised as females 0 All had normal testosterone levels for a male 0 Duringafter puberty 17 of 18 changed to male identity and gender role Suggests that exposure to T in utero and at puberty contributes to male gender identity Suggests that exposure to T in utero and at puberty overrides the sociological in uence of being raised female Development of gender role is exible At least until puberty John Money 1975 Identical twin brothers circumcised at 8 months old Due to a surgical mistake one twin lost his penis Upon doctor recommendation the parents decided to raise the child as a girl Name was changed from Bruce to Brenda 0 Surgery reconstructed more feminine genitals o Dressed as a girl and given quotgirl toysquot 0 Initially the result was considered a success However 0 Brenda rejected girls clothes and toys imitated her father and frequently attempted to urinate standing up 0 During adolescence she became severely depressed and suicidal 0 After her parents told her the truth Brenda said quotfor the rst time everything made sense and I understood who and what I wasquot 0 As an adult 0 Brenda changed her name to David 0 Underwent a mastectomy received male hormone supplements and underwent surgery to partially restore penis o Said that being a girl quotdid not feel rightquot Rodent Position in utero OMfemale located between 2 sisters 1M female located between sister and brother 2Mfemale located between 2 brothers 2M vs OM 0 higher interfemale aggression o Males less interested in o Longer cycles less sensitive to chemosignals Are sisters of twin brothers masculinized 0 Females with twin brothers 0 Higher on sensationseeking scales 0 Bettwe spatial ability 0 Sexual orientation effects weaknonexistent 0 Rose et al 2002 found no difference between females with tin brothers and females without twin sister or no twin on feminine interests and fertility Gender Roles Evolutionary Theory 0 There are stable behavioral and psychological differences between males and females due to somewhat different recurrent adaptive problems that males and females faced over evolutionary history 0 Many gender roles that we identify 0 Are consistent crossculturally 0 Can be seen somewhat in infants 0 Are similar to those seen in nonhuman primates 0 Follow evolutionarypredicted patterns 0 Differences between women and men when the genders have recurrently confronted distance adaptive problems over the long course of evolutionary history Women and men will be similar in all domains in which they have confronted similar adaptive problems 0 Similarities 0 Food selection Foot shortages Habitat selection Predator defense Parasite defense 0 Social exchange 0 Differences 0 Human reproductive biology such as internal female fertilization and obligatory parental investment 0 Preference for sexual variety 0 Evolved standards of beauty 0 Hypothesized adaptations to ovulation Gender Roles Sociocultural Theory Behavioral and psychological differences between males and females are socially constructed Males and females are born neutral and society s expectations of male and female behavior construct how people are supposed to behave lf society had identical expectations of males and females males and females would behave identically o Socialization the process of internalizing society s beliefs 0 Gender schemas a set of ideas about gender roles created from interactions with the environment 0 Media is very in uential in these processes 0 Social gender roles have changed somewhat over time and across cultures 0000 Sexual Orientation The Kinsey Scale Traditional View Heterosexual o Preferential attraction to members of the opposite sex Homosexual 42 of males and 9 of females 0 Preferential attraction to members of the same sex Bisexual 26 of males and 36 of females 84 adolescent females 0 Attraction to members of either sex Asexual 1 of the population 0 A lifelong lack of sexual attraction to either sex Sexual orientation and gender 0 A more complete understanding of gender identity has challenged the traditional categorization of sexual orientation 0 Gender identity and sexual orientation are largely unrelated o Homosexualitybisexualityetc is not the result of gender dysphoda Sexual orientation and gender roles share more relationship 0 Childhood gender nonconformity is associated with a greater likelihood of homosexual orientation in males 0 This relationship does not exist in females 0 5060 of sexual orientation is due to genetics Biology of Male Sexual Orientation 0 Brain anatomy o LeVay 1991 autopsied the brains of 19 homosexual males and 16 heterosexual males Within the SDN of the hypothalamus the third interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus lNAH3 was smaller in homosexual males 0 Domesticated rams male sheep naturally display 4 mating types exclusively heterosexual exclusively homosexual bisexual asexual About 8 of male rams consistently prefer mounting males to females Ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus oSDN smaller in male oriented males similar to lNAH3 in humans 0 OrganizationalActivation Effects 0 Levels of circulating male sex hormones in heterosexual and homosexual males do not differ 0 Male sex hormone supplements to homosexual males as adults does not change their orientation 0 However Testosterone in males elevates weeks 7 through 22 and again elevated after birth for about 20 weeks Neural differences might be organized by these testosterone surges In animal models prenatal hormone treatment has been linked to samesex behavior 0 Birth order 0 Among males each additional order biological brother increases the likelihood that the younger brother will be homosexual by about 33 15 of homosexual males owe their orientation to this effect 0 why Purely biological adopted brothers don t contribute to effect biological brothers not raised in the household do contribute Changes induced in the mother s body while gestating a male effecting subsequent sons Maternal immune response to proteins produced by y chromosome Female sexuality orientation 0 Compared to sexuality in males 0 o Homosexuality may not be a singular phenomenon Appears to be quite different from male homosexuality 0 Male sexual orientation tends to appear early in development whereas female homosexuality appears to be far more exible overthelWespan 0 Fewer biological causes of female sexual orientation have been idenU ed o quotButchquot and quotFemmequot o psychological differences quotButchquot tend to be more masculine dominant and assertive quotFemmequot tend to be more sensitive cheerful and feminine 0 Physiological differences quotButchquot higher levels of Testosterone and higher waistto hip ratio 0 mate preference differences quotButchquot more permissive toward casual sex less desire to have children and experience more sexual jealousy over nancially successful rivals quotFemmequot greater emphasis on nancial resources of partner and experience more sexual jealousy over physically attractive rivals Bameister 2000 0 Female sexual orientation is in uenced by sociocultural factors more Cultural variation Education Peers and parents 0 Greater perception of choice 31 of females vs 18 of males 0 genetic contribution stronger for males
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