Gender and Delinquency
Gender and Delinquency SOCIOL 4511
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by ehoy32 on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCIOL 4511 at Ohio State University taught by Dana Haynie, Emily Shrider in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Juvenile Delinquency in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
Gender and Delinquency 3/1/2016 Female delinquency has been decreasing over time The violence rate of female juveniles is not increasing over time Gender Patterns in Delinquency Overall, females still much more likely to be delinquent Males (adult and juvenile) are arrested far more often than females o 75% of total arrests Gender ratio o Violent arrests 4:1 o Property arrests 2:1 In the past we didn’t focus on female delinquency Are girls becoming more violent? o UCR indicates female aggravated assault arrests are increasing Police arrest practices have changed – more likely to treat female juveniles like male counterparts o Media focuses on increased girls’ violence o But self-report data indicated no change over time o Widening social net – more minor incidences being detected and penalized YouTube: Fighting Girls Numb to Violence Largest gender difference is found for homicide o (2010 – 66 female and 560 male) Gender gap the largest for the most serious offenses Males and females display differences in victims they target and the weapons they use o YouTube: Mom Convicted of Killing Son, 5, by Poisoning Him with Salt Only offense where girls have higher arrest rates than boys o Running away Gender Differences in Development Help explain gender differences in delinquency Socialization Differences o Parents treatment of infants/young children o Reinforced through toys/games Males learn to value independence and to use aggression to display masculinity o Girls are socialized to value relationships and against using aggression (use words instead) Communication differences o Females: Emphasize emotions, sharing, discussing Self-worth based on sustaining relationships Respond to anger internally with depression, anxiety, shame o Males: Emphasize doing things Respond to anger with violence YouTube: Difference between men and women o How do these gender differences influence crime/delinquency? YouTube: Barbie Bandits Part #1 Gender socialization in the media Are gender roles changing? How comfortable is society with children who do not display “typical” gender roles o YouTube: J. Crew ad sparks debate on kids and gender Cognitive differences: Females: o Greater visual-motor speed and language o Speak earlier and faster (also read better) o Respond to conflict with negotiation o Hide aggressive behaviors from adults Males: o Greater mechanical and visual-spatial tasks o Use hands to solve problems and better at math YouTube: Girls vs. Boys at Math Personality Differences Use different knowledge and have different ways of interpreting interactions with others o Females: More likely to reveal feelings and express concern for others Lower self-esteem and greater self-awareness o Males: More concerned with status and have lower attention spans http://digital.films.com/play/D3QJRP What Causes Gender Differences? Gender schema theory: argues children internalize gender scripts that reflect gender-related social practices of the culture o Once internalized, gender scripts predispose kids to construct a self- identity consistent with them YouTube: Group: Orangers-Gender Stereotypes Explaining Female Delinquency Trait or Biological Theories: o Lombroso: delinquent females more similar to men than other women Masculinity hypothesis: women who commit crimes have traits similar to those of men o Chivalry hypothesis: low female crime rates are a reflection of leniency with which police treat female offenders Females: Less likely to be arrested for some offenses Crime overlooked because police and judges want to protect girls/women o Examples? Getting out of speeding tickets Could this backfire? Women that are committing serious crimes o Killing children/partner Early Psychological Explanations Viewed physical differences between males/females as basis for behavior differences o Freud: females experience penis envy and inferiority complex Females desire to be makes and compensate for their deficiencies by committing crime Contemporary Trait Views Delinquency functions as both physical and emotional traits o Early puberty/precocious sexuality Why are girls who develop early at a heightened risk for delinquency? Interacting with older people, dating at younger ages o Hormonal effects (testosterone and aggression) o Premenstrual syndrome o Other conditions: http://videos.howstuffworks.com/investigation-discovery/32121- deadly-women-twisted-minds-video.htm Schizophrenia Munchausen syndrome Clinical depression – no sense of hope Females experiences of abuse/trauma pushes them into delinquency o Incarcerated females – more acute mental health symptoms and psychological problems Higher incidences of abuse in lives Higher incidences of drug use Female delinquents have more dysfunctional home lives than males More deeply affected by child abuse Girls may be forced into a life of sexual promiscuity because of the value it can bring to the family o Human trafficking o Running away and turning to prostitution and drugs o Using women as suicide bombers after they are raped Gender and Delinquency continued 3/3/2016 Female Gang Members Why do some girls join gangs? o Many female gang members come from troubled homes o Protection o A “family” o Family members are gang members o Girls more likely to need close personal relationships to retain emotional stability Co-ed gangs Separate female gangs Female gangs that are auxiliary to male gangs YouTube: Girls Gangs – Female Gangs Crime Documentary – Crime Documentary Liberal Feminist Views As roles of females become more similar to males, so will crime patterns o Emancipation hypothesis – predicts that women’s greater equality will result in increased female crime/delinquency Soccer player who played dirty – used aggressive males Woman CEO at Yahoo Critical Feminist View Gender inequality results from unequal power of men/women and exploitation of women by men o Female exploitation can result in delinquency o Males try to control female sexuality o Support? 90% high school girls report experiencing sexual harassment Rape very prevalent in our society Crime and Patriarchy Power-control theory: gender differences in delinquency a result of social class differences that influence structure of family life o Egalitarian families structured so that husband/wife share power at home Both parents supervise sons and daughters similarly Daughters gain freedom similar to that of sons and delinquency mirror those of boys o Patriarchal families – fathers are in charge of the household Mothers typically stay at home and take care of the children Girls are monitored more – have less opportunities to commit crime/delinquency What is the connection between masculinity and violence? Jackson Katz: Tough Guise 2
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