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Week 3 - PHCL 2600 Notes

by: Emily Notetaker

Week 3 - PHCL 2600 Notes PHCL2600

Emily Notetaker
GPA 4.0
Funct Anat and Pathophysiol I

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About this Document

Week of September 7th. Three lectures total.
Funct Anat and Pathophysiol I
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Notetaker on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHCL2600 at University of Toledo taught by Williams,F in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see Funct Anat and Pathophysiol I in Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of Toledo.

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Date Created: 09/11/15
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catalyze reactions that is they increase the rate of a given i 39 quot Erszmes cure caatiss COUFOQVS VS we hO l hl mes l l fT a reaction usuallv bv lowering emme Proteins tnat catalyze h reactions that is they r increase the rate of a given reaction usuaiiy by ioW ering ne 14M than x a This is the energy required to 39 break bonds and tom new oneswhat an enzyme often at does Iiighl y speci c for one reaction and what they work on a tho i 6ng mes Ebek xl input i 13 ioveak bonds 2 Form new ones quot Ac Hva on E owesi amount oFencvgxl heeded 13 do 44998 Caxodxls Owcrs E hccdcd gt Heips react ow edema bx lowehrSEamp Active Site mOdems of adwity 62 Active site l If submate Active Site Enzyme Lee h 3959 5 inc rcadiki availmbe MDQCCLMQ ilovms around i SP cciFied For cave aim Notchde some 22222 behave was is m on WON enzqmes cxisi Get chemicaiiy or ohiysicaliy aitered by the reaction they are the same at the end as they were in the beginning a Change the nature of the reaction or its outcome they simipiy speed it up Enzyme names Generally speaking if you to the name of the substrate you would have the name of the enzyme that catalyzes a reaction on that substrate example ATPase Examaide gmcwose is lomzerxolowh ivc Vo chjt39osc 2 gt enzc m is owned Sucrose or hveV tase Otherthings help too i noneprotein substance usually that need to be present for enzyme activity to be good MgZCa2Mn2Cu2le2Zn2 nonprotein molecules necessary for enzyme function usually involved in carrying atoms from one part of substrate to another also can donate atoms thesear 39 quot quot quot quot usucocuu were 2 Op Hle activi l xi 9a50ciocrcd w moccuqes For a hor P riod 0 time Two examples that we39ll talk about NAD 2 stands for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotidle derived from niacin involved in energy production by transfer of 2 electrons and 2 H s and gives cell energy through the electron transport chain FAD a stands for avin adenine dinucleotide derived from ribo avin and does the same things to generate energy as MAD BUHA vx lechondriod39s C Cf1 0h WWSPOKW Chaim Bo i h are organzqu 4 organic mscd gt charNed W Viamwdvs i See chapter 3 gs 3 25 326 3 27 Takes genetic code from DNA and translates the information to RNA and then to protein Amino acids are strung together in a speci c sequence to form a protein with a speci c function 7332 Cert trod DOQMK D MA gt RNA lt crown The players E review 7 chapter 2 mk DNA f V RNlA Nucleic acids are a 1 sequence of nucl eetides that are covalently quot linked together by phosphates WMSOYipth r0cpou ow Lmkus Carton last quot D N A gt A T 7 a C gt packs 1 hlalk id Dowotc have csaco63 I Made up of a u a quotquot2 A I Wm l l 39i t K39 quot sugar quot 1 Ml 79l No 0 e Posilion dcoxg LA K Nucleotides DNAe deoxyribonucleic acid Bases e adenine guanine cytosine and thymine Phosphate groups RNA ribonucleic acid Bases a adenine guanine cytosine and uracil Phosphate groups Single chain of nucleotides Double helix two chains acting as the messenger of nucleotides that wrap from DNA around each other MWDRlZi Directing the show I DNA directs transcription or the creating of a ribonuclleic acid copy of the DNA s information m This is accomplished by a code that is three nucleotides long x 39 and acts as a message for each amino acid to be added to the protein Jpn a lmPOV lavct diagram codes For cach Wino acid gomc code For VO ammo actJul Genes Promoters and gettmg g things started The triplet based code in DNA will represent all the amino acids in an entire protein over a certain stretch This is called a DNA has many genes separated from each other by large stretches of DNA cmer DNAquot More Comierex ova Luaume Wave more 49 Mus Compaqail 0 CSS prieK CVGLCA39CVEQD 1 Promoter and terminator 1 starts transcription and is located at the 5 end of the gene39s coding strand 2 strands or the 3quot end of the template strand l stops transcription and is located at the 339 end of the gene39s coding strand or the 5 end of the template strand gthard 0 ga k mU wsmPS 1 Who s responsible i For synthesis an enzyme tallied n For ynthlesis an enzyme called Bataan an enzyme called l NhOLl h break doww Nada has di F crch l xnc ons l 3925 it What happens l Formation of mlRNA from DlNA Strands of DNA are separated into coding and template strands This actually happens at a specific site in the DNA called the promoter 1 RNA is synthesized in a agt 3quot fashion a RNA synthesis stops when synthesis encounters the termination site gm a RNA polymerase binds to the promoter region of DNA a DNA strands are unwound leaving a template strand and a coding strand I RNA polymerase will use the it synthesize i RNA is synthesized by base pairing the ribonucleotide to the deoxyribonueleotide and gluing the ribonutlieotides together I RNA synthesis will stop at the termination sequence in the DNA and RNA polymerase will fall off releasing the newly made RNA and DNA to help RNA synthesis continued 1 Some nal thoughts a Remember that three nucleotides together code for an amino acid 3 Beginning of translation rst codon read for an amino acid is a End of translation last codon read for an amino acid is i a Video m H Most mRNA goes through an editing process called in RNA that is produced by transcription is a prernRhlA or what is call led NA Produced by RNA polymerase II and need to be changed to be functional for translation m f methyl guanosine and three posp a as e done before the RNA transcript is complete a 39 adenosirie residues added to the RNA when it is completed about 200 of them for the average human transcript Editing continued i removal of i t7 lt 2 from the RNA transcript by small ribonuclear proteins i code for amino acids in proteins n a do not code for anything must be removed for a good transcript to be formed We now have a usable form of the DNA code for the next step in protein synthesis L mater aux aorta om containing the sequence of amino acids for a protein through the genetic code received from DNA leaves the nucleus for the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore producing the nibosornal p 1 nal machinery o acts as an adaptor bringing in the correct amino acid to t the oodon or 3 base pair sequence contained in mRNA 1 Ribosornal subunits bind to rnRNA using th and other proteins called iniiinino acid 7 777 Characteristic 39l39 shape one if end has a codon three bases iHN A that codes for one of the AlIcrnaci39ive sPiI39Cl ns Sets rid 0 Some axons 5Tquot Share is poorHa win H was named RNA A h FWOH on bIZNA Nlii acidocch 0 CodOh on leklA Amino acid Characteristic T shape a one end has a codon three bases tF NA that codes for one of tlhe amino acid called 39 Amino acid is attached to the other end of the molecule Anticodon will base pair with codlon in raniNA and bring amino acid into the ribosome for attachment to growing protein ArrHcodor on HZNA will actMK 0 coder 0n mRNA tRNA is currde We A a covrcc t N Coded mine acid 9 Much pres o e Wee win connect m TRASLATON 142015391 gt Mutt 19B ribosomes m no l on mYLNPr mhsc1rip a once ewe H does OCLLLV mlied iraivU aDOCS W in Wateh Transcription and transllation u Facts for thought a First tRNA base on I39T39ll NA catalyzed by l j Transcription is a fected by proteins called re ran up rea fr downstream to either en ance or repress transcription from the promoter by RNA pollymerase irs with the rst stairt codona Second t NA base pairs with second codon and a covalent bond is formed between the o aino acids making a protein Single ribosome annch protein at a rate of approxirnatety L5 peptide bonds per second i 1nd P r re SW3 Ear pep Holy A srte s t ands 45K a Ctec rb that can bind to the p romoter 9 gonna hormones are r Vela teal Wis 3 7 lxltoqrxlutr Weis Wee p H0w the cell energy that is used to produce other molecules and is usually found in the cell in the from of ATP 1 The catabolism of these things produce energy through a common intermediate i a We will focus on the carbohydrate i l of proteins fats and sugars bring metabolism because it is so important to cells 9 encrav lax breaths clown Calls m Enzymes are therefore they can and do have properties similar to proteins 39 proteins can be cause to unfold and become inactive by heat pH acid base rate of a reaction without being changed themselves quotquotgt Emplci R eo lt63 they increase the s aud hoT39 cod oclxtsrs are enzximes Enzyme kinetics The maximum rate of reaction with an enzyme present is called Vmax The era the amount of substrate that is required to produce V the maximum rate of reaction a Km All enzymes will have an initial rate of reaction of substrate present Vi which can go up or get induced by the amount am is edge a max ragt8 Hoequ countxii 0 We enzcrme can Punche 0mg more WWOdc 2 mos ehou k W i e Enzyme lki netics So Vi can increase untill it hits a ceiling or maximal possible rate of reaction Vmax this is when the enzyme can t handle any more substrate any quicker The enzyme at this state is callecl because theoretically allll enzyme active sites nn nan J L uda Lml Thcrc we Faketors hoxi mm dWCaEC SONY Q Fim an increase 0r 4 MI substrate any quicker The enzyme at this state is calledl v because theoretically all enzyme active sis are occupied by substrate As we will see enzymes are capable of be ihg deleterious to the cell a j inhibitedcb the FD CJUCIDith lfea i this is done because too much prct 00 fast is Th rc our mbors l wocl can increase 0r dechase SQ hJUKokHm gt pH er p Th Produci mlccs up space hol SLLbSH odc 7 Could Pi ll Figure 254 Page 956 399 Rade limi Hra s cp came Fl P we so Past hi scp K ishwd1 omlg Nel m4 chlemes were 11 sqh l hesizc i Glucose ATP a Glucose6P Fructose P ATP Fructose l cllP mm a mailmanI 0Y3 I ea k IF W in 1 PWhoglycmldcmdc j memmldghm Eg an L a Dphmpho glycm geld Because hcva ts a laxarea s ropsl products c3e double0 l i Dl39 llmphomycm and ATP A DP P J 239 Phawhoglycenc ind lal 3 Phospheijyemc and e l PbmpheuDIWIz and hi Pm and ilCH01l ATP ADP F I 9ccp a il 0l CVCOd39C ATP 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gt We FA DHQ do noi wxodcc 1s oc39 imperi Evowx sw t c obwv docs ho i OCW ebbF H Arr 5 SomcFuuQs Wick 840m WV 0W 62 a We More ATP Wibs 11 W wvusoic doe9 iasl lows EX Womraic ivac siOW Latsiv lee cure For Emmi maularia 50 questions it LAJOJCYS W diasrww Mumpie Choice Acoliection of 9 Hoes 01 FffdbaCK components that N artNC keepa physical 39 9 PostNe or chemical component of the body rm RC UdOd CS hormones relatively stable Em 39 or constant Chemicoel S hdds Ohmi IOLAWul j 4 1n6h 1ch Never erdir5 ooP Components a 39 change in the environment cold ExamPK39 EtC 1 00 ho swcod I the detection unit nerve ending quot9 roo cowl Shiver etc i place that receives input sorts it out and sends message to elifector i a a the part of the body that ultimately responds to stimulus A response elicited by a stimulus a The pathway creating the reflex is called a This includes not only thecomponents of the homeostatic control mechanism Wire we mm m WMeeh homeom c but the afferent and efferent pathways CCan m 5 cm ism that help With the response to the Ncwm POUHNNOWS Shmu39us 0 RFsPeien l z se Sorxl sends 0 CNS 0 E FercnH Coovies actcowl frrom CNS to FF CWS s Exampie i Stimuius decreased exterior temperature Receptors tempi sensitive nerve endings i A ferent pathway nerves i Integrating center a brain hypothalamus Efferent pathway i nerves 1 Effectors biood vesseisskeietal rnuscie ceilis 7 7quot 9 Mew WasquotS tep H COH WKA S in he ioop 35312quotESSE T 3 2 EZ FW quot M0 W 6 Sng 39 39 39 4 Makes uS Vrher s A needed Decrease in Blood iPreS Brings nhss 0 are 9 worries lcss aUam k h irss we don 394 need to survive LinessenHau Organs VHS gt935 aNeeas m increase Fluids bc 035 01c blood 9 ADH causes css whackion A This5 inst60665 HAD inmke 39 Ex awupm 09 chback Increase in Blood Pressure MegaHue weed back works 0 com radio t hc s r39mnudus gt goes in oppoch airedion VON LonHan 0 work Kn loop urnHi back in normed severe diam nu f Cervix Dilation g During Delivery PosH we Leedmck NOVKS 0 increasc 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