Week 2 Lecture Notes (august 31, September 2, 4)
Week 2 Lecture Notes (august 31, September 2, 4) SOCL 100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allyson Notetaker on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCL 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Matthew Pruitt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
September 4 2015 Sociology Notes Week 2 Emile Durkheim 18581917 0 Group forces social forces 0 Social solidarity what holds society together 0 He was the first person to hold a position as a faculty member sociology 0 He studied suicide rates and discovered social factors that contribute to suicide Ex Single people have a higher rate of suicide than married people Protestants have a higher rate in suicide than Catholics o The key factor in suicide that he discovered is social interaction the degree to which people are tied to their social groups Subject matter Social facts norms laws religions etc behavior is not based on an individual s behavior 1 External to the individual 2 Coercive constrain us 3 Shared by members of the group Max Weber 18641920 0 The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism o Calvinism believed in the concept of predestination signs of salvation economic prosperity o Worldly asceticism being thrift not living a materialistic lifestyle not supposed to waste money They take their money and invest it to make more money 0 Theory a set of statements that explains why a phenomenon occurs 0 Theoretical Paradigm a basic image of society that guides thinking and research Symbolic interactionism looks at the interaction that takes place among people through symbols looks at how we assign meaning to things and how we structure reality and studies how people use symbols to establish meaning develop views of the world and communicate Examples 1 Red means stop 2 Green means go 3 Certain arm signals while riding a bike mean you re turning The Thomas Theorem quotIf men define if the situation as real they are real in their consequences Our beliefs are important and it effects our behavior Functionalism The central idea is the society is a complex system made up of interrelated parts that work together to ensure a societies survival 0 Like an organism if society is to function smoothly its parts must work together in harmony What function does an element of society serve How does it contribute to social order and cohesion Religion gives life a sense of meaning keeps order beliefs of what you should and shouldn t do 0 Functionalists argue that society is held together by a consensus of values shared agreement of what is right and wrong SocialConflict Paradigm o Views society as a structured system based on inequality 0 Social conflicts between groups 0 Over scarce resources 0 Such as income land money water etc Key elements 0 Society is structured in ways to benefit a few at the expense of the majority 0 Factors such as race sex class and age are linked to social inequality Conflicts argue that the social power holds society together Generalization vs stereotype Generalization seek to identify meaningful differences and distinctions across a group Stereotype All people of a certain group are a certain way ignoring differences that exist within groups Deterministic Relationship A relationship that always occurs or exists there are no deterministic relationships in sociology Probabilistic relationship likely hood of something happening Sociological research 0 Surveys 0 Sample of the population want to generalize the data of the sample to the larger population Cheaper and quicker to sample In order to generalize from a sample to population have a representative sample 0 Probability sampling technique 0 Random sample one in which every member of the population has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample In 1936 the literary digest o 2 million people 0 Based on their poll they predicted Alf Landon 0 Not a representative sample because only wealthy people voted 0 Have greater validity when asking people to report behaviors that are not criminal andor stigmatized Secondary analysis of existing data 0 Government data 0 Data that has been collected by other social scientists Ethnography field research 0 Regularly interacting with a group over an extended period of time in the natural setting and observing what s happening 0 Covert research role when the sociologist keeps his identity hidden from the group of people that heshe is observing I Reasons for covert research role 1 Sometimes groups would otherwise deny entry 2 People often alter their behavior when they know that they are being observed 0 Overt research role when the sociologist informs the group of people heshe is observing that they are sociologists
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