Last week of notes for Exam 1
Last week of notes for Exam 1 483
Popular in Medieval Art History
Popular in Art
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aubree Broyles on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 483 at Fort Hays State University taught by Erica Bittel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Medieval Art History in Art at Fort Hays State University.
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Medieval Art History Spring 2016 Test 1 Notes Introduction 1 Medieval Art The Medieval Period and The Middle Ages 0 The Middle Ages was a period of about one thousand years 0 Viewed by Renaissance scholars as a sort of interlude or period of decline 0 The period occurred after the times of Classical Greece and Rome and before the revival of learning which emerged during the Renaissance This period has also been referred to as the quotDark Ages 0 The Medieval period began in the 4th century with the battle of the Milvian Bridge 0 Roman Emperor Constantine o The Christian monogram the Chi Rho on their shields The Medieval period ended in the 15th century with the discovery of the Americas by Portuguese navigators o Sailed the water with the Cross of the Order of the Knights of Christ Cross of the Order of the Knights of Christ The Early Christian Church and the Bible 0 Followers of Christianity declared Jesus birth to be the beginning of a new era 0 Known as Anno Domini or AD 0 Today we refer to the time afterJesus birth as the Common Era or CE 0 The Jewish scriptures form the foundation of what Christians call the Old Testament The central tenets of Christianity are contained within the New Testament 0 Gospels Matthew Mark Luke and John each provide a different version of the life and teachings of Christ Q Epistles St Paul s letters to the newlyformed Christian communities 0 Acts of the Apostles documents the establishment of Christianity as an organized religion 0 Book of Revelation St John s description of the Apocalypse Vulgate Latin edition of the Bible translated by Saint Jerome Early forms of Christian worship were very simple 0 Jesus gathered with his apostles for the Jewish Feast of the Passover 0 When Jesus de ned the bread and wine as his own body and blood he established the sacrament of Holy Communion o Tituli of cial Christian homes where members of the faith reenacted the Last Supper There were about 25 of cial homes in Rome where this happened turned into a ritual after this is how communion got started 0 A more elaborate worship service evolved in the 4th century 0 The service was divided into 2 parts Liturgy of the Word 0 Open to the public Liturgy of the Eucharist Open only to initiates 0 Chi Rho Transubstantiation when the bread and wine miraculously become the esh and blood of Christ Another important ritual in the early Catholic Church was the initiation ceremony of baptism 0 Like other Church rituals it evolved into an elaborate formal ceremony presided over by the head of the Christian community the bishop o In baptism the initiates symbolically quotdiedquot and were reborn in Christ Christians utilize two different types of time Historical and Liturgical o The Western Christian liturgical year is based on Christmas December 25th 0 The Eastern Christian Orthodox liturgical year is based on Easter 0 Events in the Gospels are typically grouped into 3 cyclesquot The Marian or Nativity cycle Christmas events The Public Ministry of Cycle the miracles Jesus performed The Passion Cycle The death ofJesus In the Early years of Christianity rival religions in uenced the development of the Christian faith 0 Religious cults incorporated music incense and sacred imagery into their rituals o Christians adopted many of these elements into the Mass to enhance the emotional power and immediacy of their worship as well By the 3rd Century monotheistic cults and religions such as Zoroastrianism Mithraism and Sol lnvictus meaning triumphant sun spread throughout the empire The in uence of such monotheistic faiths on Christianity is evident in the following o The designation of Sunday as the Christian sacred day 0 The use of December 25th to celebrate the birth of Christ Christianity became a major religion within the Roman Empire and as a result it needed an organized governing structure and a coherent philosophy 0 The church adopted the Roman imperial model Provincial governments overseen by centralized rule also had a tithe 0 And in an effort to appeal to the educated classes Christians turned to Greek thosophy St Augustine West St Gregory of Nazianzus East 0 The Universal Soulquot believed that the soul could be in Earthly and spiritual realms Arch of Titus ca 81 CE concrete and white marble Rome Italy E l o a Spoils from the Temple oflerusalem relief in the passageway of the Arch of Titus ca 81CE arbl about the Roman capture ofJerusalem taking importantJewish items paraded through the street speaks to the power of the Roman power and authority HadrianConstantine Hunting Boar and Sacri cing to Apollo Constantine Addressing the Roman People in the Roman Forum from the Arch of Constantine ca 130138 CE mablroe l i 39 o 1 o Tondi Circular composition i Classical vs Medieval Art 0 Greek artists observed nature and then attempted to create idealized representations 0 Roman artists worked in a more realistic or naturalistic style 0 Medieval art is characterized by a sense of expressionism and abstraction that is not necessarily related to visual appearances Christianity in the Roman Empire 0 Emperor Septimius Severus was the rst to of cially acknowledge Christianity 0 Christians allowed to practice but not the convert others 0 Under Gallienus Christianity became a quotpermitted religionquot Diocletian required citizens to make sacri ces only to Jupiter the Roman gods and the dei ed emperors o Monotheistic Christians and Jew were imprisoned and often executed as martyrs for their faith 0 Emperor Diocletian completely reorganized the governing structure of the vast Roman Empire 0 Devised a form of government called a tetrarchy or quotrule of fourquot 0 Required that each Augustus one from the East and one from the West designate a subordinate and heir both holding the title of Caesar o Eventually Constantine a Caesar in the tetrarchy gained control of both the western and the eastern parts of the Empire 0 Roman Empire West Augustus Maximian Caesar East Augustus Diocletian Caesar Constantine the Great from the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine 325326 CE marble Rome people he is looking out at his people 0 Appropriation Constantine absorbed power of past rulers by taking elements from other monuments and carving his own face on it equating his reign with reigns of past emperors He has the faces recarved to look more like his own face He is associating the power of these past rulers to his own reign Hierarchic Scale relative size relative importance 0 Christianity Under Constantine o In the year 313 Constantine issued the Edict of Milan Archetype of religious toleration It allowed Christians as well as the followers of other religious faiths to practice whatever form of worship they chose 0 Christianity Under Theodosius o The Pax Romana Roman Peace that existed under Constantine dissipated upon his death When Theodosius became emperor in 379 CE steps were once again taken to restabilize the Roman Empire Theodosius was determined to unify his subjects through religion 0 Established Christianity as the sole religion of the empire 0 Of cial art continues to represent the emperor in a godlike superhuman manner Missorium of Theodosius 388 CE Found in Estremadura Spain 0 We know he is important because he is the biggest centered and has a double halo one glow around his head and the rounded arch above his head 0 The other gures are looking towards Theodosius that directs us to him to know he s important 0 This is secular not religions Christianity Under Theodosius o Theodosius also established the Roman capital at Constantinople 0 At the same time the city of Rome was experiencing political and economic decHne Remained the administrative center of the Western Church To counter outside threats the government in the West relocated from Rome to Milan 0 Under the direction of the bishop St Ambrose And the capital later moved to Ravenna In the year 410 CE Rome fell to the Gothic invaders Chapter 2 The Early Christian Period Jewish and Christian Art Before Constantine Both Christians and Jews separated themselves from the of cial Roman religious practices of the period most notably the worship of images of multiple gods 0 As a result the study of early Jewish and Christian art is dependent for the most part on funerary art Paintings amp some sculpture have been found in underground cemeteries known as catacombs o Locui niches carved into the walls of the catacombs o Cubicula small chambers used for funerary rituals Catacomb of Priscilla 3rd century Rome o Cubiculum of the Veiled Lady Catacomb of Priscilla reproduction of ceiling 3rd century Rme F L quoti39 39 1i Theood Shpardquot is in the middle Teacher and Pupils Grant and Woman and Child Cubiculum of the veiled Lady Catacomb of Priscilla 3rOI century wall painting in a lunette Rome The Good Shepard Cubiculum of the veiled lady Catacomb of Priscilla 3rOI century wall p aintingvg aRome Jonahis wall painti Vomited Out Cubiculum of the Veiled Lady Catacomb Priscilla 3rd century in a lunette Rome W1 wagr 39 The Sacri ce of Isaac Cubiculum of the veiled lady Catacomb of Priscilla 3rOI centuy wall ainting Rome Jewish and Christian Art Before Constantine Palm leaf victory Dove the holy spirit Anchor hope The cross was typically disguised as the mast ofJonah s ship an anchor or as the Egyptian Ankh The sh was a symbol of Christ 0 The disciples as fishers of menquot 0 Baptism The Story ofJonah 3rd century marble Christelios Musoleum of the Julii 3rd century mosaic Vatican 0 Vines are symbolic of Christ s blood Sarcophagus oflunius Bassus ca 359 marble Vatican f o This is signi cant because many people in this time couldn t read they used things like this to understand the stories in the bible o The carvers were concerned with 2 major themes 1 The guarantee of salvation 2 The triumph of the Roman Christian church 0 Detail of Christ enthroned 1 3 3x1 L E Vquot A raditio Legis handing down the law This is the youthful version of enthroned Christ He is resting his feet on Caelus personi cation of the heavens he is the ruler of heaven 0 Caeu also appears on the chest plate of Augustus of Primaporta a 722p Center 0 Iconographer Taking symbols in the carvings and making them function within the scene A master sculpture familiar with traditional religious imagery and sacred texts could translate them into works of art Early Christian Architecture The symbolic nature of Christianity demanded that the Church signify both the house of God and the tomb of Christ 0 Needed to be able to accommodate the entire Christian community 0 Architects rejected Roman temples an focused instead on the civil basilica and the tomb for inspiration Roman secular basilicas were large rectangular structure that served as places for public gathering 0 At its most basic a basilica was a simple hall with a trussed timber roof 0 Could be extended by colonnades and aisles as well as a clerestory Colonnade A repetition of columns Clerestory Clear storyquot part of the basilica that is pierced with windows 0 The basilica also had one for more semicircular apses projecting beyond the walls Apse Semicircular space that would hold the clergy and the alter For Church architecture Christians adapted the basilica form the suit their own purposes 0 At the end of the hall an apse housed the clergy and the altar o The hall served the congregation o The entrance was placed opposite the apse drawing the eye toward the altar o The longitudinal orientation also provided space for religious processions Churches were located outside the Rome s city walls and placed near the shrines of Christian martyrs o Often constructed on imperial property 0 The emperor likely wanted to avoid offending the pagan Romans who still held a great deal of political and economic power Church of Santa SabinMZZ432 Rome 5 aquot l l I in AB Triforium blank space between the colonnade and the clerestory covered the space formed by the sloping roofs over the aisles 0 Made the interior space more aesthetically pleasing Triumphal arch where the nave wall meets the apse signi es the triumph of Christ that takes place symbolically at the altar during the Eucharist Baldachinociborium canopy over the altar Church of St John atran ca 312318 Rome nstantine s rsimperial Christian building Early Christian Architecture 0 Christian ritual also came to include the saints and martyrs who sacri ced their lives for the Christian faith 0 Relics the venerated remains of saints or objects associated with saints o Martyria shrines dedicated to martyrs used to protect the relics 0 Plan of Church of Santa Costanza ca 350 o Ambulatory allows worshipers to walk around the altar but at the same time protects the relics U shaped aisles that go around the utti from the Church of Santa Costanza ca 350 mosaic Rome rm 2 quot 0 Christian Symbolism Palm leaf victory Dove holy spirit Anchor hope Cross disguised as the mast ofJonah s ship an anchor or as the Egyptian Ankh Fish Christ 0 The disciples as shers of men 0 Baptism Swan grace and purity Peacock afterlife Lamb sacri ce Christ s ock of faithful people Goose holy spirit Pheonix resurrection rebirth o Sarcophagus of Constantina from the Church of Santa Costanza ca 250 porphyl y I a 0 Old St Peter s Basilica o Trophy of Gaius shrine commemorating St Peter s victory as a martyr Could be Constantina or might be her sister Cross section of old St Peter s basilica Restored in the 16th century St Peter was martyred at Nero s Circus several other martyrs died there Plan of Old St Peter s Basilica 4th century Vatican City Italy 0000 v I39i itiiisviIii iivlsli iildIai li r AISLE I u v n 39 x Iii rms Narthex porch o Transept a large hallway wider and taller than the nave forms a tshaped cross with the nave added to accommodate clergy and pilgrims The Roman Empire in the 5th Century 0 Western Roman Empire 0 Rome as the spiritual capital of the West 0 Uni ed under the Pope o The administrative and commercial capital of the Western Empire moved a number of times over the next century Rome Milan Ravenna o Threatened by foreign invaders Eastern Roman Empire 0 Ruled from Constantinople o Politically peaceful stable and prosperous 0 However the Eastern Church faced a number of religious heresies and wars 0 The Cruci xion and the Suicide ofludas 420430 from Rome or southern Gaul ivory 0 Using icons and imagery from ancient antiquity and incorporating it into Christianity helps to convert people to Christianity and makes things easier to understand 0 His sacri ce was triumphant o Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore 432440 Rome 1 of 80 churches in Rome dedicated to Mary 0 Rebellion Against Moses from the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore 432440 MosaicRom e 3 The bubble is the glory of the lordquot Moses is protecting them 0 Images from the Triumphal Arch Infancy of Christ from the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore 432440 Mosaic Rome 0 Top most scene is the Annunciation this is when an angel comes to Mary and tells her she is pregnant with the son of god Mary is always portrayed wearing gold The gures are very tall for the canvas they are tall so they can be seem from the ground these pieces are very high up There are gestures to tell what is going on in each scene but they don t have any expressions on their faces The artwork around the triumphal arch are showing that Christ as a child is holy he has a halo around his head but Mary and Joseph are not 0 Coronation of the Virgin from the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore 432440 Mausol OO O Theotokos Mary as the mother of god she is enthroned next to her son shows her as the Queen of heaven 0 This is a very controversial thing some people believe that Mary is not that holy um of Galla Placidia exterior view ca 425 Ravenna Italy According to tradition this building was built to house a tomb Empress Galla Placidia was a very powerful ruer However she probably isn t buried here This tomb was built as an oratory and also a Mausoleum Oratory a small chapel used for private worship Thouside is pretty plain and boring but the inside is very interesting Vault mosaic Each of the 4 writers of the bible is associated with a beast or animal 1 in each of the 4 corners Matthew human gure angel Mark lion Luke Ox John Eagle o Lunete Shepard from the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia a Christ is depicted as the good shepherd Cabinet with the 4 texts believed that this is St Lawrence 0 Baptistery of the Orthodox late 4th century remodeled in the mid 5th century Ravenna ltaly 39 lll39 7 lliri F Depicts the baptism of Christ in the middle outside are the 12 apostles Early Byzantine Period 0 In the year 330 Constantine made Byzantium renamed Constantinople the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire 0 The city ourished with political power military strength and economic prosperity the center of a brilliant civilization 0 The 5th6th centuries were known as a Golden Agequot 0 Today we refer to this era and civilization as Byzantine o The Byzantine Empire was certainly a Christian state but paganism remained in uential in the arts 0 The Christian Church was led by 5 patriarchs who resided in Alexandria Jerusalem Antioch Constantinople and Rome 0 Council of Calcedon in 451 Decided that the patriarch of Constantinople was 2nOI in authority with only the pope in Rome as his superior 0 Land walls of Constantinople built by Theodosius II 412413 0 O EmperorJustinian I ruled the Eastern Empire from 527565 Justinian was known for his extensive territorial expansion and military success along with a new synthesis of GrecoRoman and Christian culture Authoritarian approach to government Nika Riot a period of civil unrest in 532 that resulted in the burning of several important religious and imperial buildings Nika means conque Justinian also took a leading role in shaping church policy As a defender of Christian Orthodoxy he fought to eliminate Greco Roman paganism and competing Christian sects In foreign policy Justinian sought to recover regions that were lost to foreign invaders Launched one of the most aggressive military programs in medieval history Restored Ravenna s status as a capital in Italy By Justinian s death in the year 565 the empire bordered nearly the entire Mediterranean Sea Foreign policy was paralleled by reforms in state taxation and legislation and the writing of the Corpus of Civil law a text now known as the Justinian Code Justinian s reign is further characterized by an exceptional record of architectural and artistic patronage and production Endeavored to remake the ancient capital founded by Constantine the Great 324 Architectural efforts were documented in the treatise quotOn the Buildingsquot written by the court historian Procopius The rebuilding of the Hagia Sophia from 532537 0 Anthemius gt Isidorus architects of the Hagia Sophia The portable arts also ourished during the age ofJustinian Silk production Introduced to Byzantine lands from China Icon painting 0 Church of Hagia Sophia Gaspare and Guiseppe Fossati 1851 handcolored engraving 3 I Contemporary interior 0 Mihab tells the Islamic people which direction to pray Pendentives the dome of the Hagia Sophia is supported by pendentives a concave triangular sectio f nr solves the problem of putting a round dome on a square building Tympanum interior at wall Christ Pantrocrator from the Church of Hagia Sophia 532537 Constantinople O O I 7 x The plan of the Hagia Sophia was never duplicated by Christian architects but it did inspire other plans The plan of the Church of the St Mark Venice is very similar Church of St Mark Venice tay Cupola Smaller dome set on top the main dome Narthex entrance porch Presbytery sanctuary a sacred space Lunette detail from Presbytery Scenes of Abraham 00000 0 Lunette detail from presbytery scene of Abel and Melchizedek 0 Detail She has the 3 wise men embroidered along the bottom of her skirt 0 NeoPlatonism Emphasized the hierarchical ordering of the universe GodgtSaintsgtAngelsgthumansgtanimasgtplantsgtdemons This is why Christ is positioned higher in the arched and walls and why the saints are lower Light and color plays into this as well less realistic more spiritual The mosaics in Church of San Vitale compliment this 0 Byzantine Mosaics o Byzantine art combined the earthly realism of ancient art with the spiritual goals of Christianity and NeoPlatonism thus creating the rst truly medieval style 0 2 different but equally important modes of perception form the foundation of the Byzantine style Naturalisticillusionism Hierarchic abstraction 0 Religious art was viewed as an aid to mediation and had to be rendered in such a way that allowed the worshiper to partake in the spiritual world The static timeless quality of the image took precedence over narrative elements The NeoPlatonic emphasis on light and color offered a transcendental environment for the celebration of the mass 0 Holy Women at the Tomb Church of Sant Apollinaire Nuovo before 526 Rave This was very high up from the ground hard to see from the oor there is no setting or background it is really just gures the tomb and the rock she sits on o Christ enthroned Arian representation of Christ s 1 HM O is I o Christ is showing himself as a divine being to Peter James John 0 Cross is anked by Moses and Elijah hand of God is coming down 0 Shows him in human form and in divine form 0 Floor Mosaic from Beth Alpha Synagogue ca 518 Galilee lsrael OOOO Paper topic Jewish Art This was in a basilica it was destroyed in an earthquake workers were working on a canal when the mosaic was discovered A layer of plaster covered the oor after the earthquake which helped O O O For Analysis Figures strong contours childlike rendering multiple 0 preserve this mosaic o 43 long 46 wide 0 The theme is the origin and ful llment with god s people 0 Most applicable covenant is the Abrahamic covenant 0 Detail of the zdiac and Helios f o Helios is th God of the sun 0 Detail ca 518 Israel I Story from the old testament perspectives brief dialogue of the story 0 Detailte k 2 by 2 pairs of animals St Michael early 6th century ivory diptych right panel Sumptuary arts arts that are luxurious and extravagant often owned by orson not the government or church Reference to Greek heritage with Byzantine characteristics and symbolism Largest surviving Byzantine lvory Panel o Classically inspired Attention to drapery wet effect of drapery Classical Architecture wreath above youthful face looks more like a young Greek hero than a messenger of god 0 Byzantine characteristics He doesn t look like he s grounded in an actual space feet are positioned weird Lack of rational space Abundance of decoration at the top 0 Symbols Orb implying divine right to rule Wreath symbol of victory over death 0 Dioscorides receiving a mandrake root from Materia Medica Dioscorides 6th century copy of the 1St century original o This is a book of medical treatments and herbs o It was given to a princess as a gift 0 Rebecca at the Well from the Vienna Genesis 6th century purple vellum 0 Classical in uence orator steps forward 0 Cruci xion and Holy Women at the Tomb From the Rubbula Gospels ca 586 vellum o 0 when comparing these to older works these have A LOT more narrative Icons and lconoclasm 0 Icons Greek for lmagequot or quotpaintingquot and during the medieval period this meant a religious image on a wooden panel used for prayer and devotion 0 Iconoclasm refers to the destruction of images or hostility toward visual representations in general lconoclastic controversy images were removed from churches and subsequently destroyed a civil war pitting empire against the Orthodox church lcons were perceived to be in violation of the 1St commandment Retrain the growing wealth and power of the monasteries The trigger for Leo lll s prohibition was a volcanic eruption he say it as God s anger for iconic worship Multiple Choice Question 0 Khludov Psalter 9th century 7 3 r o The Vi 9 as s this guy is destroying the icon of Christ 7 with Saints and Angels 6th century encaustic painting lmage lD s 50 year range