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Chapter 14 notes

by: samantha Flavell

Chapter 14 notes Com210

samantha Flavell
SUNY Oswego
GPA 3.8

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These are all the notes that we covered on chapter 14
Critical thinking and Public speaking
Thomas Downs
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by samantha Flavell on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Com210 at State University of New York at Oswego taught by Thomas Downs in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Critical thinking and Public speaking in Communication at State University of New York at Oswego.

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Date Created: 03/04/16
Public Speaking  Ch. 14 Notes The Goals of Persuasion *Persuasion is ever­present in our lives. *Persuasion: the process of reinforcing or changing beliefs, attitudes and behaviors of others. 1) Attitude: is representative of our likes and dislikes 2) Belief: Something you understand as either true or false 3) Value: Your interpretation of what you view as right or wrong HOW PERSUASION WORKS *Ethos: the Credibility behind your argument ­If you have a knowledgeable and credible source your audience is more likely to believe  you *Logos: The rational and logical aspects of your argument *Pathos: the emotional appeal **Motivation: the underlying driving internal force that causes people to do things and reach  their goals. *Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion (ELM) ­theory, which is a simple idea used to offer a reason behind why people are motivated to  do things. *Elaborate: you think about the information you hear and work through it, interpret it and really  dissect it. 2 Ways to Be Persuaded 1) Direct: you elaborate and critically think about a message as you evaluate it. 2) Indirect: don’t elaborate and are swayed by the superficial and peripheral aspects of  the argument.  How to Motivate Your Audience **Cognitive Dissonance: When you present information that is inconsistent with your current  beliefs and attitudes and you realize that they don’t match. *If you want to use cognitive dissonance you need to be aware of the ways in which your  audience may react. 1) Listeners may discredit the source 2) Listeners may reinterpret the message 3) Listeners may seek new information 4) Listeners may stop listening 5) Listeners may change their attitudes, values, behaviors or beliefs Use the Needs of the Listeners *Physiological: food, water, air ­ Your audience will not be able to focus if they’re too hot, uncomfortable hungry, thirsty etc.  ­Try to make it so that your audience is comfortable and will be able to pay attention to  your speech *Safety: If your audience feels at risk they won’t be able to focus on your message *Social: Humans need to feel valued and loved *Self­Esteem: Desire to think well of ourselves *Self­actualization: To be able to realize your highest potential. Positive Motivation *Provides a sense of accomplishment, stimulating and comfortable *Benefit: positive result that creates a good feeling for the listener *Feature: characteristic of topic Negative Motivation *Fear appeal *A threat to a loved one is often more effective than to the listener themselves ­i.e. your children will die if they don’t wear seatbelts *The more trustworthy and respected the speaker the more successful the appeal ­i.e. Surgeon General is more convincing regarding vaccinations than you are. *The appeal will be more successful if you can convince the reader that the threat is real *Increasing the intensity of the appeal will cause it to be more effective in general *The appeal will be more effective if you can convince your listeners that they have the power to affect it. Developing an Audience­Centered Persuasive Speech *you can’t persuade someone unless you are aware of their interests, beliefs attitudes etc. *Consider the diversity of the audience: there is no one single persuasion approach that works on everyone *Be mindful of your ethical responsibilities when persuading someone ­Don’t fabricate info, or excessively frighten them  *Selecting and narrowing your persuasive topic 1) Choose one that is important to you that you will be passionate about 2) Make your topic be relevant, a real concern or need 3) Social Judgment Theory: listeners fall into 3 categories when confronted with a  persuasive topic 1) Agree with Speaker 2) Reject what the speaker says 3) Non­commitment: aren’t sure whether they agree or disagree. *Develop your central ideas *Proposition: Statement that you want your audience to agree with 1) Proposition of fact: is something true or false? 2) Proposition of Value: Statement which calls for the listener to judge the  worth/importance of something. 3) Proposition of Policy: Advocates for a specific action ­Making a change in a behavior, policy or procedure. **As always rehearse before you deliver your speech Persuasive Speeches *To reinforce/ change a) Attitudes b) Beliefs c) Values d) Call to action: get people to donate? / Politics etc. *Strong persuasive speaker should be able to touch on all levels Resolved: The legal drinking age in NY State should be reduced to 18 years. **Call to action Speech** Traditional Approach of Persuasion  By. Aristotle 3 Fold aspect of persuasion 1) Ethos a. Speaker must be believable and trustworthy b. Speaker can have NO hidden agenda 2) Logos a. Rational reasoning/logic 3) Pathos a. Emotional connection to message *Modern theorists take Aristotle’s ad say first elaborate on your points by thinking and reasoning about the information. 2 Ways to Approach Elaboration 1) Direct Elaboration a. Go straight for topic and try to prove it true on as many levels as possible 2) Indirect Elaboration/ Peripheral Consideration a. Take examples that apply to topic and show how examples lead to thesis being  true 2 Ways of Persuading 1) Positive Motivation *Get reward if you do the “right action” *Either don’t do something or do what is wanted *May feel motivated to believe speakers message and their purpose       2) “Threatening” (Negative Consequences) *This bad thing will happen if… Preparing 1) Choose Topic a. Keep in mind you must accomplish one of the actions of a persuasive speech (is  not simply to inform, but you do need to inform WHY) b. Narrow Topic:  i. Difficult to prove a wide topic ii. Narrow in Thesis: Easier to prove c. Determine Persuasive Purpose i. What aspect will you choose to accomplish ii. Be sure thesis is clear and firm d. Develop a Central Idea i. Persuasive speech is an ARGUMENT **Argument** 1) CLAIM: the “why for your topic. 2) WARRANT: Rationale in your own words (Explain claim) 3) EVIDENCE**: prove it a. Statistical b. Expert Purpose of Persuasion 1) Refute/disprove beliefs 2) Comparative advantage a. Try to show if a SMALL ACTION is done, a MAJOR IMPROVEMENT will  take place. 3) Problem­Solution** most common a. Discuss a problem b. After showing inherent problem, offer a solution to correct it 4) Statement of Reasons a. Give a list of reasons why your claim is true. Extemporaneous Speaking *Most direct conversational style ­Connects with audience *Refutation: Listing of complaints/reasons that uphold our argument ­Refutes generally understood ideas behind a concept


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