Biology: Feb. 29-March 4
Biology: Feb. 29-March 4 Biology 1120-001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anzlee on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1120-001 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Andrew Brower in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
Biology: February 29- March 4 Non-Vertebrate Deuterostomes • zygote has radial cleavage • indeterminate development of identical daughter cells • blastopore develops into an anus • mesoderm from endodermal cells Phylum Echinodermata • hard, calcium-rich exoskeleton (ossicle plates) under skin o ossicles diffuse in flexible bodies o ossicles fuse in rigid bodies • move and feed using a water vascular system • secondary radial symmetry- bilaterally symmetrical during larvae development, but then become radially symmetrical; usually in body plan of five • endoskeleton- epidermis contain neurosensory cells; always growing • water vascular system- begins in ring canal based near esophagus and five radial canals expand through body; separate from other systems; functions in operate feet: water pressure changes expand and contract tube feet • coelom works as body cavity • reproduction- usually sexual and external • many have the ability to regenerate if their central disk is present • very diverse; 20 extinct classes, and many currently present o Class crinoidea- sea lilies and feather stars § sessile o Class asteroidean- sea stars, “starfish” o Class ophiuroidea- brittle stars § largest class § slender arms that are used for feeding, not movement o Class echinoidea- sea urchins and sand dollars § no distinct arms § move on tube feet or spines § some urchins may be venomous, some are herbivores; mouth on ventral side with five teeth § sand dollars are flat with short spines; scavengers o Class holothuroidea- sea cucumbers § scavengers § inject organs from anus for defense Phylum Xenoturbellida • “strange flatworms” • small, no brain or organs; only blind gut Phylum Hemichordata • “acorn worms” • burrow in mud • suspension feed • share traits with chordates, such as gill slits Phylum Chordata • characteristics: dorsal nerve cord, notochord, pharyngeal slits, and postanal tail • dorsal nerve cord- nerve cords run down dorsal (back) part of body • notochord- stiff and flexible support (replaced by vertebrate in vertebrates) • pharyngeal pouches- used for filter feeling in non-vertebrates; used for gill slits in aquatic vertebrates Non-vertebrate chordates: • Cephalochordata- Lancelets o no scales o notochord that runs through o simple; not many organs • Urochordata- Tunicates o sessile adults o tadpole larvae that have chordata characteristics o filter-feeder o no major cavity or segmentation Vertebrates: Fishes and Amphibians (chordata continued) • evolved in ocean • vertebral column • distinct head • neural arch • internal organs (liver, kidney, endocrine glands, circulatory system) • endoskeleton • six groups of fishes: hagfish, lampreys, sharks and rays, ray-finned fishes, coelacanths, and lungfish (over half of vertebrates are fish) • four groups of terrestrial animals: salamanders and frogs, turtles/snakes/lizards, birds, and mammals Fish • Hagfish o no eyes, fins, or jaws • Lampreys o dorsal fins, no jaws or eyes • Chondrichthyes o sharks and rays o jaws; teeth- system of losing teeth o lay eggs or eggs or live birth • Ray-finned fishes o body covered in scales o internal bone skeleton o highly mobile fins o lateral line system- allows them to sense pressure within the water o gill cover (operculum) o swim bladder- allows for buoyancy in water o usually external fertilization • Lungfish o lobe-finned fishes o possess lungs o can support weight while on land Terrestrial • Amphibians o legs, lungs, more advanced heart o eggs prone to desiccation so they lay them in water o breathe by gulping Reptiles (including birds) Reptilia: turtles, snakes, lizards, alligators and crocodiles • amniotic egg contains: embryo sack, yolk sac for nutrients, allantois sac for waste, and the albumen provides water • adaptations for land o thoracic breathing- expansion of rib cage allows for negative pressure to draw in air o amniota- breathing through rib cage or diaphragm and improves circulator system; dry and water tight skin, scales made of keratin o internal fertilization o cold-blooded: ectothermic- heat obtained from external sources; poikilothermic- body temperature fluctuates with outside temperature (birds and mammals are homoeothermic endotherms) • Testudinia- turtles and tortoises o Order Chelonia § anapsid- differ because they do not have temporal holes in skull § have a protective shell (carapace- top part, plastron- bottom part) § turtles- usually aquatic and carnivorous § tortoises- terrestrial and herbivorous § must lay eggs on land § envirornment determines sex § many migrate § some grow very large and/or old § Euryapsida- extinct marine reptile § o Order Rhynchocephalia- lizardlike; only found on New Zealand coast; endangered • Lepidosauria- snakes and lizards o Order Squamata § lower jaw not joined to skull directly § copulatory organ is paired in males § Mosasaurs- extinct marine lizard § about 3000 species of snakes • batesian mimincry- harmless species benefits from looking like a venomous species (ex. scarlet kingsnake looks like coral snake) § Amphisbaenia- worm lizards • Crocodilia- crocodiles and alligators o haven’t changed over millions of years o resemble birds more than other reptiles (care for young; four-chambered heart) • Aves- birds o many dinosaur birds lived through Cretaceous mass extinction § ex. of dinosaurs: archaeopteryx and microraptor gui o feathers (reptilian scales were modified) o flight skeleton (thin and hallow bones) o present day bird adaptations § efficient respiration (air flow trades between lungs and different sacs) § efficient circulatory system § endothermy (body regulates semi-constant temperature) § feathers: insulation, signaling, flight § higher blood pressure and heart beat speed § large four-chambered heart § metabolism and skeletal changes allow for more efficient flying • long keel sternum bone for large flight muscles, produce heat in tissues, hallow bones o Order Passeriformes- songbirds; 60% of bird species; bright colors and elaborate songs
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