Week3NotesPsychology.pdf Psych 1301
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Reyes-Hernandez on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Randolph Taylor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
In Class Notes Wednesday September 9 2 15 1 227 AM o Psychological Disorders are 0 Patterens of thoughts feelings or actions that are deviant distressfull and dysfunctional 0 Terms from the Definition 0 Disorder refers to a state of mentalbehavioral ill health 0 Patterns refers to finding a collection of symnptoms that tend to go together 0 For there to be distress and dysfunction symptoms must be sufficiently severe to interfere with ones daily life and well being 0 Deviant means differing from the norm 0 Deviant 0 To deviate in general means to vary from what typically would happen 0 A behavior or mental state is deviant when it is different from what would be expected in that culture 0 Defining Deviance O The Role of context and Culture 0 Understanding the Nature of Psychological Disorders 0 One reason to diagonse a disorder is to make decisions about treating the problem 0 To treat a disorder it helps to understand the naturecause of the psychological symptoms 0 Based on older understanding of psychological disorders treatments have include exorcising evil spirits beatings to get ride of the spirits o Philippe Pinel sought to reform brutal treatment 0 Pinel proposed that mental disorders 0 Not caused by demonic possession 0 But by enviornmeantal factors such as stress and inhumane condidtions O Pinels moral treatment improved many places 0 The medical Model 0 Psychological disorders can be seen as psychopathology and illness of the mind 0 Disorders can be diagnosed 0 Based on a collection of symptoms that tend to go together 0 Disorders can be treated 0 With a goal of restoring mental health 0 Classifying Psychological Disorders 0 Diagnoses create description of assocaited symptoms 0 Diagnoses allow us to statistically study simlilar casses learning to predict outcomes 0 Diagnoses can guide treatment choices 0 The five quotAxesquot of diagnosis 0 The DMS suggests decribing someone not just with a label but with a five part picture 0 Axis 1 o Is a clinical syndrome present 0 Axis 2 o Is a personally disroder or mental retardation 0 Axis 3 o Is general medical condition such as diabetes arthritis or hypertenison also present 0 Axis 4 o Are psychosocial or environmental such as school or housing issue also present 0 Axis 5 o What is the global assessment of this persons functioning o Stigma and Stereotypes 0 Many people think a diagnostic label meanms being seen as tatinted weak and weird 0 Many psychologists believe we should use extreme caution in dignosing and labeling 0 However 0 These nagative viewsstigam come from popular cultural views 0 nsantiy and Responsibility 0 Jared Loughner shot many people including US Reps in 2011 O Loughner had schizophrenia and substance abuse problems 0 To what degree if any should he be held responsible for his actions 0 What is the appropriate consequence 0 Anxiety Disorders 0 GAD Genenralized Anxitey Disorder 0 Emotional Cognative sympotoms o Worrying anxious feelings and thoughts about many subjects 0 Free floating anxitey with no attachment to any subject 0 Physcial o Autonomic arousal trembling sweating fidgeting sleep problems 0 Recall that be pysc disporder symptoms must be deviant distressful and dysfucntional 0 Panic Disorder m dying o A panic attack may include 0 Many minutes of intenese dread opr terror 0 Chest pains choking numbness Patients may feel certain tha it s a heart attack 0 Panic disorder refers to repeated and unexpected panic attacks as well as a change in behaivor O Phobia o A specific phobia o Uncontrillable irrationao intense o Desire to aviod the object of the phobia 0 Even just a photos can trigger 0 0CD o Obessions are intense unwanted worries ideas and images that repeatedly pop up 0 A compulsion nedding to carry out an action even if it doesn t feel like it makes sense 0 When is it a disorder 0 Distress you are frustrated with not being able to control the behaviors 0 OR o Dysfunctions time and energy spent on these thougths and behaviors uinterfere with everyday life 0 PTSD 0 May inculde 0 Repeated intrusive recall of memories 0 Recall hippocampus and amygdala o Nightmaresnand other reexperiencing 0 Social withdrawal or phobic avoidance o Jumpy anxiety or hypervigilance 0 Insomnia or sleep problems 0 Which people get PTSD 0 Less control 0 Traumatized more times Brain differences Less resiliency o Retraumatized 0 Biology and Anxiety Genes 0 Studies show that identical twins even raised separately develop similar phobias 0 Genes and Neurotransmitters 0 Genes regulate levels of neurotransmitters 0 Anxiety linked with a certain genes and neurotransmitter o Serotonin a neurotransmitter involved in the brain39s alarm center 0 The Brain 0 Traumatic experiences can lead to emotionally charged memories 0 Thus recall of memory also leads to brining back the feeling 0 Anxiety disorders inculde over arousal of brain areas involved in impulse control 0 The OCD brain shows extra activity in the frontal lobe which monitors our actions and checks for errors 0 Mood Disorders 0 Major depressive disorder is o More than just feeling quotdownquot 0 More than just feeling sad about something 0 Bipolar disorder is o More than quotmood swings39 0 Depression plus the problematic Overly quotupquot mood called mania 0 Criteria of Major Depressive Disorders 0 Major depressive disorder is not just one of these symptoms o It is one or both of the first two PLUS three or more of the rest Symptoms must persist for weeks or more 0 Major Depression 0 Notjust a Depressive Reaction 0 An unfair criticism of themselves or tohers with major depression quotthere is nothing to be depressed aboutquot o If someone with asthma has an attack do we say quotwhat do you have to be gasping aboutquot o It is bad enough to have MDD the persists even under quotgoodquot circumstances 0 Don39t add criticism by implying the depression is an exaggerated response 0 Depression is Everywhere 0 Phobias are the most common frequently experienced disorder 0 But depression is the 1 reason people seek mental health services o In western culture 0 Per year depressive episodes happen to about 6 percent of men and about 9 percent of women 0 Over the course of a lifetime 12 percent of Canadians and 17 pecent of American ecperience depression Bipolar Disorder Contrasting Symptoms Depressed mood stuck feeling Mania euphoric giddy easily down with irritated with exaggerated pessimism exaggerated optimism social withdrawal hypersociality and sexuality lack of felt pleasure delight in everything inactivity and no initiative impulsivity and overactivity difficulty focusing racing thoughts the mind fatigue and excessive desire to won39t settle down sleep little desire for sleep Bipolar disorder was one called manic dpressive disorder Bipolar disorder39s two polar opposite moods are depression and mania Suicide and Self Injury 0 Every year 1 million people commit suicide giving up on the process of trying to cope and improve their emotional wellbeing o This can happen when people feel frustrated trapped isolated ineffective and see no end to these feelings o Nonsuicidal self injury has other functions such as sending a message or self punishment Biology of Depression the Brain 0 Brain activity is diminished in depression and increased in mania 0 Brain cell communication neurotransmitters o More norepinephrine arousing in mania less in depression 0 Reduced serotonin in depression Preventing or Reducing Depression 0 Using Knowledge of the Biology of Depression Adjust neurotransmitter with medication Increase serotonin levels with exercise Reduce brain inflammation with a healthy diet 0 Prevent excessive alcohol use Schizophrenia o The mind is split from reality eg a split from ones own thoughts so that they appear as hallucinations o Psychosis refers to a mental split from reality and rationality o Edisoraganized andor delusional thinking 0 Disturbed perceptions o Inappropriate emotions and actions
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