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Reviews for Oceanography11-4-2013.pdf
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Date Created: 06/30/14
Danielle Kumor November 4 2013 Chapter 3 The Ocean Floor Layers of Earth Core Mantle and Crust Known for over 1000 years Crust composed of Lithosphere and Asthenosphere Continential Drift The theory that the continents we know today were actually connected into a massive continent called pangaea India being gondwanaland Evidence that supports this 0 South America and Africa coastlines match up perfectly if fitted together 0 bands of fossilized plants found in completely separate continents suggesting the bands spanded the continents when they were all joined together 0 Alfred Wegener promoted this theory with matching geological phenomenon on completely different continents entirely the orientation of glacial scratch marks on rocks and different continents and the discovery of coal in antarctica 0 Wegner however did not provide a conclusive reason if the continents were together then why were they separated now 0 Mid ocean Ridges and ring of fire in the pacific provide evidence that the Earth39s crust shifts every so often and extremely slowly but it DOES shift In 1960 this theory was finally accepted with conclusive evidence of plate techtonics being a major part on the reason why the continents are apart Scientists found that terrestrial rock rock on continents is vastly more older than marine rock Sediments are thicker where it is older and vice versa The earth changes it39s magnetism many times over it39s life The mantle has convection currants that cause the crust to shift above it in three different ways Convergent Transform and Divergent Rock level stays the same be a process called subduction where rock is pulled down and liquidized in the mantle The mentioned above shifting is how these rocks are pulled into the mantle Convergent Two plates come together Diverge Two plates are pushed apart by liquid rock magma SidingTransform Two plates slidinggrinding together in opposite ways Volcanic activity on a map identifies the edges of a plate magma causes steam to break continential crust causes rift valley where rain water collects and a lakeocean enlarges and creates a body of water This was how the oceanslakesriversetc we know today are formed Lakes for instance are an early stage of rift valleys and eventually will expand to create an ocean Examples of rift valleys Red sea Saudi Arabia and africa weas connected but a rift valley was formed causing them to separate Opposite diverging when two plates converge volcanos are created In water the volcanos turn into volcanic islands On land these volcanos turn into volcanic mountains Tsunamis caused by Earthquakes which are caused by plates moving Hot Spot a spot just below the crust where it is volcanically active These hot spots can be very active for tens of thousands of years and shut off for the same amount of time Examples of hot spots Hawaiian islands created by hot spot being turned on and off while plates are shifting making a new volcano crop up in a different location every other 10k years roughly Guyots are flat tall islands or former seamounts The Great Basin used to be a small ocean now in the middle of the desert with these guyots in there on land these asre actually called mesas Sediments are the timekeepers of the ocean They have evidence of where they39ve been in the world and where they originally came from billions of years ago Analyzing these sediments helped scientists create a more helpful understanding of the continential drift theory Types of Sediments 0 Terrigenous Sediment Bits and pieces of terrestrial rocks produced by chemical and physical weathering 0 Biogenous Sediment The second most abundant marine sediment type siliceous Made of silica and calcareous sediments made of calcium carbonate Made by living things such as plankton organic 0 Hydrogenous sediments Mineral particles that are chemically precipitated out of the water this is a very small amount at the bottom of the ocean and doesn39t make up much of the sediments in the ocean 0 Cosmogenous sediments extraterrestrial sediments from meteors or other space debris which falls to Earth 0 Sediments hold so many clues on the location of the plate millions of years ago Other helpful tips 0 Where there are volcanos there is the meeting of two plates 0 Convection currants in the mantle move the crust 0 Atolls are created by a volcano sprouting up when a hot spot is under the crust coral reef is built on said volcano and the volcanic island then ceases being active and erodes but the coral reef is still present A Lagoon forms where the volcano was but reef stays there CHAPTER 4 WATER AND IT39S CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES H20 is the chemical name of the compound quotWaterquot A compound is a combination of elements Moecue One unit of a compound 1 H20 Water39s Connective Properties Water combines with virtually everything because hydrogen is always looking for 1 Atoms and Oxygen is always looking for 2 atoms One molecule of water has two evenly different charges on one half of the compound One side is always negative and one side is always positive This is called a diapole Water combines especially well with itself When Frozen molecules of water tighten and become solid Water doesn39t like to break it39s own boundaries remains very strong even in liquid form Because of this water has the highest surface tension of any liquid Special insects can use this water tension to glide on the surface of water but it39s much easier in fresh water No insects in ocean Almost everything dissolves in Water and water has the highest heat capacity of any liquid Can hold the most heat until turning into a gas Once water gets cold it tends to retain coldness very well and over a long period of time and vice versa Holds a lot of heat for a long period of time LATENT HEAT Measurement in calories the amount of heat it takes to raise a molecule of water one degree CELCIUS Not farenheit Water weighs less when warmer The amount of heat that changes when water melts LATENT HEAT OF MELTING 80 Calories LATENT HEAT OF EVAPORATION 540 Calories Water39s high heat capacity absolutely affects weather and climate SALINITY The amount of salt that39s in water On a scale of 0 to 38 0 being fresh and 38 being extremely salty When salinity is high density is high and when temperature is low density is low Thermocline is the rapid drop in temperature in a short distance Habocline is the rapid increase in salinity with the depth of water Both of these factors will cause Pycnocline which is the increase in density with more depth The density of water varies with temperature and salinity
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