Week 3 Lecture Notes (September 7, 9, 11)
Week 3 Lecture Notes (September 7, 9, 11) SOCL 100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allyson Notetaker on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCL 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Matthew Pruitt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
September 11 2015 Sociology Week 3 notes Sociological Research 0 EthnographyField research 0 Snowball sample They provide an initial contact to the group and can also vouch for a researcher as well The initial contact allows you to meet more people I Example a woman took a covert research role as a stripper to collect data as a sociologist from other strippers they don t know she is actually a sociologist because they might act different 0 Sociologists do not have the privilege to have a relationship with their subjects Ethics and research 0 All research must be approved by a Human Subjects Review Board prior to the collection of any data 0 Research must not cause physical psychological or emotional harm 0 Generally researchers must obtain informed consent from participants unless it s a covert research role 0 Confidentiality of data and participants must be ensured What is culture 0 The learned and shared behaviors beliefs values norms and material objects that characterize a particular group or society Material culture tangible objects that members of society make use and share Nonmaterial culture shared sets of meanings that people in society use to interpret and understand the world norms values laws religion etc How culture affects our lives 0 Culture guides our behavior 0 The effects of our culture generally remain imperceptible to us 0 When we experience crosscultural differences it becomes clearer to us how our lives and the lives of others are socially constructed 0 Culture becomes a lens through which we perceive and evaluate what is going on around us Cultural orientation 0 Culture shock a sense of confusion uncertainty disorientation or anxiety that accompanies exposure to an unfamiliar way of life or environment 0 Mild example fee to use the bathroom in public 0 Extreme example dog on the menu at a restaurant 0 Ethnocentrism the belief that one s culture and way of life are superior to those of other groups 0 Positive aspects attachment to the group 0 Negative aspects slavery practices of discrimination Components of symbolic culture 0 Language system of shared symbols that enables people to communicate with one another 0 Language allows for experiences to be passed from one generation to another 0 Language provides us a past and a future as well as shared understandings Values Norms and Social Control 0 Values ideas of what is desirable in life and standards by which people define good amp bad 0 Norms shared rules or guidelines for appropriate behavior standards about what people should or should not say think or do under given circumstances 0 3 ways in which norms vary 1 Crossculturally gt Example personal space greeting by kissing 2 Norms vary over time gt Example gay marriage music divorce having children out of wedlock 3 Norms vary across subcultures gt Example female protestants couldn t cut their hair 3 Prescriptive norms what you should do 0 Example brush teeth everyday 3 Proscriptive norms what you should not do 0 Example cheat steal 0 Social control methods used by groups to deal with behavior that violate social norms 0 Purpose methods used by groups to ensure or attempt to ensure conformity to norms I Two basic processes of social control 1 Learning the norms of the group and adopting them as one s own so they guide one s behavior 2 Sanctions reactions to behavior a A positive sanction is a reward for conforming behavior b A negative sanction is a punishment for deviant behavior c A formal sanction is an official group action meant to convey the collective sentiment of the group d An informal sanction is an unofficial action of a group or individual i Informal positive high five hug hand shake ii Informal negative cuss out flipping someone off iii Formal positive an award iv Formal negative demoting probation