Intro to Myth/Mesopotamian Creation
Intro to Myth/Mesopotamian Creation CLT3378
Popular in Mythology: East and West
Popular in Classical Studies
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michaela Maynard on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CLT3378 at Florida State University taught by Mark Buzbee in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 126 views. For similar materials see Mythology: East and West in Classical Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
82715 Intro to Myth CLT 3378 What is myth o Mythologymythos and logos I Mythos anything delivered by word of mouth word speech a tale story narrative I Logos a word language talk a narrative can mean court 0 Provisional def myths are stories about gods I Shows valuesfearsreligion I Societies trying to make sense of what s around them I Take reader on journey I Stories are sacred they have been passed down from ancient civilizations over many generations usually by oral tradition Part of civilizations culture 0 Explanatory Func I Religion tradition heroes etc I Why certain rituals Why certain actions Myths Define culture both ancient and modern 0 Our society mostly propagated by Hollywood shows stories of beliefs in our culture I Ex Star Wars modern myth 1970s dream to go to intergalactic space I Indiana Jones Appealing Nature of myths 0 Why are the myths appealing to us I Connect us to ancient cultures in a recognizable way Adam and Eve take the forbidden fruit I Provide entertainment value Harry Potter Mayan template shows ball player in game you could only use lower body to get ball through vertical hoop losing team was executed o Deeper Purpose I Ancient myths can be associated with religion lessons and or values that were considered important by ancient cultures Did not always have role modelsfather mother etc to pass down information I Connotation today myths are false Ex sun travels around the earth mythfalse I The myths read in this class are considered true in the sense that the original cultures considered them to be true Show their values beliefs were true to them Myths as science 0 Inherent science in myths may be incorrect I but science is not intrinsic to the deeper points made about human beings and their role in the world Apollo and his sun chariot What is myth o Mythbest def a traditional story that usually involves gods supernatural beings I Traditional story a story handed down ove generations usually orally Types of traditional stories 0 Myths legends folktales Myths vs Legends vs folktales 0 Myths I Have gods exceptional human beings I Happen in remote past I Original creator origin cannot be identified don t seem to have a creatorquot I Time is vague I Have religiousmoral scientific significance 0 Legends I Heroes I More recent past than myth o Folktales I Contain lesser supernatural figureswitches giants fairies or ordinary people less humanistic qualities I No set time Once upon a timequot seem to have never actually happened Approaches to studying Myth 0 Modern theoretical approaches I Scientists ancient perspectives of the workings of the universeshow how the cultures viewed the universe around them I Historians motivations and mindset of ancient peoplesshow figures larger than life for a reason 0 Our course similar to historian perspective I Why does a specific culture tell a particular myth Mythological Characters 0 Gods goddesses powerfulimportant supernatural beings that ancient cultures experienced to be more powerful than themselves have a bearing on their lives and helped to explain the order or function of the universe had a specific purpose teach a lesson explain an origin etc 0 Heroes figures in whom we take a special positive negative interest I PAPERS TOPIC O Tricksters amoralneither good nor bad have own inscrutable reasons shape shifters deceivers instigators sometimes are cultural heroes Important Mythological Concepts 0 Polytheism belief in many gods I Polymany and mayosgod Anthropomorphism conception of gods in the form of human beings in the ancient soceities look and act like humans have emotions varies by god Binaturalism conception of gods with two natures he appears human like but can be water in another form I Physical space and god sky earth I Abstract concept and a god love victory I Tangible thing and a godfire Syncretism one culture adopts the mythic beliefs of another cultureGreece and Rome I Venus is Greek name I Aphrodite is Roman name Spheres of in uence area in which gods are associatedhave power I Are not powerful in all aspectsunless head of religionquot I Don t make sense I IshtarMesopotamian version of Aphrodite sexual desire war morning evening star I Zeus rain lightning kingships hospitality Course Rubrics 0 Throughout each ancient culture we will focus on myths that address themes like I CreationDestructionmyths that focus on origins and annihilation of the universegods humans earth etc How does each civilization view the created world I Heroes heroines myths that address how heroes and heroines overcome adversity PAPER FOCUS I Afterlife Underworld myths that entail what happens to both gods and humans after deathWhat myths entail what happens I Mother Goddess myths that focus on a nurturingor not divine female creator Concepts about course 0 O O 0 Ancient myth vs classical myth I Classical Greece and Rome I Ancient broad entire world Mythology as differentiated from legend and folklore I Myth no origination point quotBoundaryquot b n Ancient western eastern culture Relevance of ancient mythology to contemporary society I What are the lessons we can learn from Dates in this course will be more relative than specific Interpreting Ancietn dates 0 BCE before common era 0 CE common era 0 Used rather than BCbefore Christ and ADanno dominiin the year of the Lord 0 CF abbreviation for Latin confercomparebring together 0 C aroundabout Classical vs ancient 0 Classical Hades and Persphone C45 BCE 0 Ancient Osiris Egyptian god of after life Geographical contextthere will not be a map test 0 Line halfway b n ancient Greece and ancient Egyptthrough Libya Connecting ancient past to the present 0 Brad Pitt as Achilles in Troy 0 Usain Bolt in the 2012 Olympic gameslarger than life figures in Olympicsheroes etc History and the present 0 Looking back cant avoid looking at history must always be rewritten 0 Self discovery modern world is in uenced pos and neg by ancient world city names language contains Latin roots 0 Values both humans and divine such as beliefs in gods and distinction b n mortality and immortalityWhats the importance of this life What does it mean to be human 0 WarPeace the ancient past acts as a constant reminder of the consequences of failed diplomacyHow can be learn to get along with each other Why study ancient myth 0 Poor reason I Cultural and ethnic elitismour culture is better than any in the past 0 Good reason I Cultural identity we recognize the role the ancient past has played in the shaping of our society today 0 Many open ended ways to approach mythology CLT 3378 Notes Mesopotamian Creation Enuma Elish Sept 13 9115 Mesopotamian Creation Enuma Elish Sept 13 MesopotamiaEgypt Syria Sumermodern day Iraq 0 Land b n Riversquot Tigris and Euphrates Fertile Crescentquot Mesopotamian Civ 6000 BCE o 60004000BCE people settled in Mesopotamia small villages gt towns I Sumeriansc45002770BCE After dealing with basicschild birth food etc they began advancing Writing systems first literate urban civilization Cuneiform tablets o 6000BCE539BCE I Akkadian Empirec23342193BCE In uenced by Sumerians I Sumerian Revivalc21002000BCE I Rival kingdoms c20001600BCE rival city states rise of Babylon middle of Mesopotamia I Rise of Assyria1600BCE Akkadian speaking nation that uses cuneiform I Babylonia Akkadian speaking rival to Assyria Defeats Assyria in 612 BCE Falls to Persians in 539BCE THERE WILL NOT BE A QUIZ WITH DATES Enuma Elish o Babylonian work tells creation and succession myths ApsuTiamut to Marduk I Succession myth how one generation of characters leads to the next 0 Enuma Elish When on Highquot skies were not yet named 0 Poem recitedperformed at New Year Festivalspring equinox I Themesrepetition were built into poem for memorization purposes 0 Describes the rise of power of Mardukruler of the universe their version of Zeus 0 Date of composition unknown c 19001000BCE I 7 cuneiform tabletstablets get broken lost etc I Poetry vs Prose preserved as a poem Enuma Elish Broken down 0 In the beginning waterprimordial o Apsufresh water and Tiamatsalt water I Binatural godsspace AND god I No explanation for their existence water was there to begin with ex God then creation of things 0 Gods born within themmale and female paris from beginning not male dominated I Lahmumale and Lahamufemale I Ansharmale and Kisharfemale Anshar sky Axlequot Akkadian sky god great grandfather of Marduk o Anshar Kishar Anu incest is big themehave to start somewhere I Another sky god heavens and constellations I Father of EnkiEaeventual father of Marduk Anshar gt Anu gt EnkiEa gt Marduk 0 Young generation meet together and create clamor I More lively than previous generation partyrave bunch I Generation gap very obvious I Neg view of noise in Babylonian myth Noise not appreciated by older gods I Epic of Gilgamesh human noise leads to ood o Apsu cant sleep due to noise plots destruction I Tiamat protests Apsu s reaction reacts maternallywants to protect her children Where have we seen this 0 Compare Ouranos and Gaia Kronos and Rhea I Apsu s viziercounselor Mummu incites himencourages reaction to younger gods I Younger generation of gods discover Apsu s plotting Enki Ea o EnkiSumerianEaAkkadian Nudimmud I Spheres of in uence cleverness wisdom fresh waterlives in water but not considered a water god I Trickster god I Associated with human creation 0 Discovers Apsu s plotting lulls Apsu and Mummu to sleep with spells magic being introduced to myth o Slays Apsugrandfather figure takes Mummu captive 0 Sets up dwelling in apsureservoir of fresh water arises from slain god Marduk o EaDamkinawife Marduk I Ruler of universe patron god of Babylonkind of like Zeus I Storm godtypical of a ruler of the universepower of creation destruction lightning etc not binatural I Bel Akkadian for master epithetnickname I 4 eyes 4 ears breathes fire So awesome that his nature is impossible for humans to understand 0 Anugrandfather creates 4 winds for Marduk as a birth right gift Tiamat s Plot 0 Marduk s windsyoung doesn t know how to control winds stir up Tiamatsalt water sea 0 Gods still cant sleepMarduks windsyounger generation acting up since Apsu is gone Tiamat creates army 11 monsters includes viper dragon lion demons scorpion man Repititionhelps build suspense realization of immense power chorus emphasizes Tiamut monsters and Marduk s eventual heroism Qingu in commandviziercounselor and new lover of Tiamat Tablet of Destinies keeper controls fate of each individual Tiamat gives to Qingu Will no other god come forward 0 Ea discovers plot goes to grandfather Anshar for advice Sends Ea and Anu to fight Tiamat they return in fear Marduk volunteers like a champstill very young inexperienced small Now has opportunity to prove himself Marduk s Rise to power 0 Anshar calls council of gods Tiamat who bore us is rejecting usquot had been maternal in beginning but now being hostile to children Very unlike a mother goddess 0 God proclaim Marduk king swear allegiance to himif he survives bringing Tiamat down Drain the life of the god who has espoused usquot Deities not necessarily immortal o Marduk s constellation demonstrationpoints to sky and makes stars disappear Shows control over nature Marduk gets down to business 0 Marduk packing serious heat Bow maceclub and net to ensnare Tiamat Flamefilled body Four windscardinal directions from grandfather Anugod of winds Imhulluwindevil wind Storm chariot with four horses Slayer Pitiless Racer and Flyer A spell in his lipsquot can say at any moment when help is neededmagic I An herb to counter poison shows reliance upon magic AND nature I GodsIgigi group of younger gods throng at his sides Battle Marduk vs Tiamat O O The Annunakifollowers of Tiamatolder gods vs the Igigifollowers of Mardukyounger gods Winds released blow into Tiamat I Tiamat in ated like a balloonlike how wind in ates the ocean Tiamat fails to atter MardukTiamat realizes Marduk is powerful and tries to take his side to avoid loss Imhulluwind stretches her belly arrow splits her in two I lowermost half sky I Earth Weeping eyes become sources of Tigris and Euphrates breasts becomes mountains tail becomes Milky Waycompare Apsubody is used I Since Tiamat is quotwaterquot she is often represented as a serpent Qingu taken captivecompare Mummu Tiamat s associates imprisoned weapons smashed Storm God vs Serpentine Monster 0 O O Recurring theme in Ancient near east Storm god often king of gods Serpentine monster often associated with primordial waters or the sea Tiamat a dragonserpentboth due to depictions at different times I Enuma Elish not clear I Tiamat represents sea I Babylonian cylinder sealdepicts a serpent Aftermath of Battle 0 O O Marduk takes Tablet of Destinies from Qingu gives it to AnuMarduk may not have won battle wo winds from grandfather Marduk makes his dwelling over the Apsuquot I Names it Babili Gateway of the GodsquotBabylon I Establishes Babylon as center of religious life I Marduk Lives there center of power and Authorityaetiology science of studying cause behind something Marks out cosmos creates calendar Human Creation 0 Marduk says he wants to perform miraclesquot I He IS power Tella Ea his plan to create mancreated as basically slave workers I Men to put gods at leisure perform ritual work in temples Eagod of wisdom use blood of Qinguthe counselor of Tiamatstill imprisoned o Mardukor Ea kills Qingu creates humans from bloodidea of life giving lifehuman life is not made out of nothing Intentionally ambiguous Both important to human creationunknown which god killed Qingu o Gods build templeziggurat for Marduk to live in at Babylon Enuma Elish celebrates founding of BabylonTemple of Marduk Enuma Elish Themes Tells a successionMarduk becomes king of gods creationhuman life and a charter mythhow Babylon becomes center Overthrow of father and mother Order from chaos Ancient Freek comparisons O O Apsu and Tiamat vs Chaos Apsu vs Ouranos Tiamat vs Gaia Ea vs Kronos Prometheus Marduk vs Zeus
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