Notes from Week 3: HLTH 2000 - Intro to Public Health
Notes from Week 3: HLTH 2000 - Intro to Public Health HLTH 2000
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Logan Amon on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HLTH 2000 at Ohio University taught by Heather Harmon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 240 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Health in Public Health at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Week 3 Notes HLTH 2000 Intro to Public Health Instructor Heather Harmon 09072015 09112015 0 v State Health Agencies 0 All 50 states have their own health department I Ohio Department of Health ODH 0 It s purpose is to promote a healthier lifestyle and protect the people 0 The evaluation of data and information on the release of hazardous substances into the environment to assess current or future impact on public health develop health advisories or other recommendations and identify studies or actions needed to evaluate and mitigate or prevent human health effects the document resulting from that evaluation 0 The decision process by which individuals groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans programs or procedures 0 Link people to needed personal health services and assure the provision of health care when otherwise unavailable Inform educate and empower people about health issues 0 State Health Department 0 Mostly organized in divisions bureaus 0 Play many different roles Can establish health regulations Proved line between federal and local health agencies Serves as conduits for federal funds aimed at local health department Have lab services available for local health department 0 Local Health Department 0 Responsibility of city or country governments Jurisdiction often depends on size of population 0 State mandated services provided locally Restaurants public building and public transportation inspections detection and reporting of certain diseases collection of vital stats 0 Over 2500 in the US 0 Coordinated School Health Programs 0 Schools under category of government health agency funded by tax dollars Schools have great potential for impacting community health CSHP essential components Face many barriers oz Quasigovernment Health Organizations 0 Some official health responsibilities operate more like voluntary health organizations Operate independently of government supervision Derive some funding and work from government EX American Red Cross National Academy of Sciences oz NonGovernment Health Agencies OOOOO Funded by private donations or membership drives Arose due to unmet health need Operate free from governmental interference Meet specific IRS guidelines with tax status Many types voluntary professional religious social corporate etc oz Voluntary Health Agencies O 0 Created by one or more concerned citizens that felt a specific health need was not being met by governmental agencies Most exist at national state and local levels National level is often focused on research state links national with local offices local often carry out the programming Usually combined of paid staff and volunteers oz Purpose of Voluntary Health Agencies I Raise money to fund programs and or research I Provide education to professionals the public I Provide services I Advocacy THESE NEXT INFORMATIONAL POINTS CAN ALSO BE FOUND 0N BLACKBOARD UNDER POWERPOIN T SLIDES CHAPTERS 3amp4 339 the study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events in human population and applicationquot The study of events that befalls all people 0 The diagnostic discipline of public health 0 A major part of public health s assessment function and observational science 0 Investigates causes of diseases 0 Identify trends in disease occurrence 0 Evaluates effectiveness of medical and public health interventions 0 Collect info about disease status of community 0 Data can be used to prevent disease outbreaks or determine effectiveness of prevention effort gt Persistent usual expected health related state or event in a defined population over a given period of time gt Health related state or event in a defined population above the expected over a given period of time gt An epidemic affecting a large number of people global many countries continents or regions 0 Rates allow for comparisons of outbreaks at different times or indifferent places I people af icted those who are sick I number of events in a given population over a given period of time or given point in time Natality birth morbidity sickness mortality or fatalit death rates those susceptible to sickness number of ne health related events or cases of a disease in a population exposed to that risk during a particular period of time divided by total number in same population Important in study of acute diseases disease in which the peak severity of symptoms occurs and subsides within days or weeks Incidence rate calculated for a particular population Number of new and old cases in a given period of time divided by population at risk having the disease at this point in time Denominator includes the total population Number of live births in a given year divided by the midyear population Number of deaths in a given year divided by the midyear population used to make comparisons of relative risks across groups and over time when groups differ in age structure I measure morbidity and mortality for particular populations or diseases measures death rate for a specific disease percentage of cases of a particular disease that results in death percentage of overall mortality in a population that is attributable to a particular cause 0 v Reporting Birth Death and Diseases 0 Physicians clinics and hospitals required to report 0 Notifiable diseases infectious diseases in which health officials request or require reporting can become epidemics 0 Reported to CDC via National Electronic Telecommunications Systems NETS 0 Various challenges to maintaining accurate data 339 Standardized measurements of Health Status of population 0 Mortality Stat most reliable measure of population health status 0 Life expectancy average number of years a person from a specific cohort is projected to live from a group point in time Years of potential life lost 0 Number of years lost when death occurs before one s life expectancy o Subtract person s age at death from their life expectancy o Difficult to determine 0 75 years old used in most calculations Disability adjusted life years DALY 0 Measures burden of disease 0 One DALY one lost year of healthy life Health Adjusted Life Experience HALE 0 Number of years of healthy life expected on average in a given population or region of the world 0 90 O 90 O 90 0 v Sources of secondary data data collected by someone else possibility for another reason 0 Useful in planning public health programs and facilities 3 US Census 0 Enumeration of the population 0 Taken every 10 years 0 Gathers data on race age income employment education dwelling type other Classification of Diseases Health Problems In Community Health are usually classified as lt 3 months or gt 3 months Communicable you can transmit it or Noncommunicable Chronic 0 v Communicable vs Noncommunicable Diseases 0 diseases for which biological agents or their products are the cause and that are transmittable from one individual to another erson 0 those illnesses that cannot be transmitted from one person to another I Identifying cause is different because there are many factors 339 Acute vs Chronic Diseases Illnesses o diseases which peak severity of symptoms occur and subsides within 3 months 0 Can be communicable or noncommunicable o diseases which peak severity of of symptoms occur and don t subside after 3 month 0 v Communicable Diseases 0 ability of a biological agent to enter and grow in the host susceptible person or organism invaded by an infectious agent I cause of disease or health problems I factors that inhibit or promote disease transmission o capability of a communicable agent to cause disease in a susceptible host 0 disease causing agent virus bacterium etc I Pathogenesis basically how an infection leads to disease 0 favorable environment for infectious agent to live and grow human animal etc path by which agent leaves host how pathogens an passed from reservoir to next host where agent enters susceptible host susceptible to new infection being established immediate transfer of disease agent between infected and susceptible individuals I Touching kissing sexual intercourse o transmission involving an intermediate step I Airborne vehicleborn vectorborn biological I Vehicles Non living objects by which agents are transferred to susceptible host doorknob toys desks pens medical instruments etc OOOO 0 v Infectious Diseases Communicable Disease 0 Precipitous drop in communicable disease impact in developing nations in the last 100 years I Immunizations I Antibiotics 0 New communicable diseases still emerge I HIVAIDs MDRTB MRSA Bird Flu o Communicable diseases are still a major player in healthcare costs I Elderly I Newborns I Chronically ill secondary infections 0 Exposure infection Prodromal presymptomatic or showing some symptoms but not clear what for Subclinical Phase suspected but not detected Clinically Manifested observable symptoms Resolution Recovery Long term sequdae disease caused by infectious disease O 0000 0 Control easiest at it s weakest link Aerosol airborne spread Hardest to control Contact touching contaminated object then putting hands in mouth Foodborne contamination fecaloral route Bloodborne hepatitis B HIV Vectors rat eas black plague deer tick Lyme disease Sexual Contact syphilis gonorrhea HIV 000000 0 Kill pathogens with antibiotics 0 Eliminate reservoir 0 Prevent transmission I Wash hands I Quarantine I Condoms 0 Increase resistance of host by immunization Vaccines And that is all for chapters 3amp4 If you have questions on anything be sure to check out the power point presentation slides on blackboard and you may find what you re looking for there during class on Thursday 910 the class watched a humorous Video about the black plague and Professor Harmon mentioned that there may be a question or two in the exam from that Video So here is the link I suggest you watch it at least once if you don t get too annoyed with it https wwwyoutubecomwatchvrZy6XilXDZQ I hope you all have a fantastic weekend and I will see you on Tuesday
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