Rise of Slavery in the Western Hemisphere
Rise of Slavery in the Western Hemisphere HY 325-001
Popular in US World Power to 1898
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HY 325-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Steinbock-Pratt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see US World Power to 1898 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Rise of Slavery in the Western Hemisphere o Overarching question Which came first Racism or Slavery o No real answer as both reinforced each other I Racist attitudes contributed to slavery I slavery aided in perpetuating racist attitudes Slavery America Europe Spain and the Caribbean 0 Slavery as an institution is over 3000 years old 0 Long history of people using dark skinned people as slaves 0 Muslim Iberians used darkerskinned Africans as slaves I Viewed the darkerskinned people as inferior and subject to servitude 0 When Christians reconquered the Muslim areas they incorporated some of those attitudes about darkskinned people and servitude 0 When the Ottomans captured Constantinople they cut off Western Europe from the Slavic slaves to Western Europe looked to other places for slave labor I The new area they focused on was West Africa 0 Common theme circumstantial events aided in Africans becoming enslaved o Slavery in West Africa was wellestablished long before the Europeans arrived 0 An extensive internal slave network already existed within West Africa 0 African slavery was not based solely on heredity like it was in America I More based on being a debtor or a criminal o Slavery in America 0 Theory that slavery in America was natural or inevitable is based on the fact that many colonial economies depended on cash crop and plantation agriculture both of which were labor intensive 0 English colonists held an attitude of superiority over Africans and darkskinned people 0 Main system in colonial America perpetual hereditary slavery o Slavery in Europe 0 Different degrees existed as to what constituted a free vs unfree person 0 Perpetual hereditary slavery phased out around the 13005 0 Main system that was used was serfdom I Serfdom individuals work as laborers for a master 0 Couldn t be sold as individuals could only be sold as part of land sales Serfdom was replaced with paid contracts between an owner and a laborer European mercantilists embraces African slavery as a way to obtain laborers European trades had slave networks that operated in the Caribbean S Am and N Am Early on West African slaves were first brought to the Caribbean I Slaves didn t start to regularly arrive in North American until the 16405 0 Slave trade peaked in the midlate 17005 0 Slave trade phased out by the late 18005 0 An estimated 10 million were transported across the Atlantic as part of the slave trade 0 Slavery in Spain 0000 Early on Spanish explorers used the native Taino people as laborers I Diseases decimated the Taino population so the Spanish substituted the Taino laborers with African slaves Spain established plantation agriculture in the Caribbean thus solidifying the need for a large labor force 1516 1St sugar mill established 1520s sugar boom I 15000 Africans lived on Hispaniola at the time I Made Hispaniola have an African majority population 0 Native Americas as slaves O 0 When the first established settlements the Spanish and English used Natives as slaves Harder to enslave Natives than Africans because they died quickly from diseases and overwork Unlike enslaved African the Natives knew the terraingeography of the Americans and knew the bests ways to run away and escape made keeping them enslaved harder o Slavery in the Caribbean 0 O O Forerunner to slavery in North American colonies England had a large population and little available land while the colonies had a smaller population and lots of available land I Made the American colonies and ideal place to migrate to in order to establish a better life I Problem using English people as laborers was expensive and most English people preferred to work their own land than to work on someone else s land 0 Solution unfree laborer ie slaves Barbados 1St slave economy I 1st English colony whose success was driven by the slave system I Barbados had become the most populous and profitable English colony o This was due to its sugar cultivation economy 0 Sugar cultivation was highly labor intensive and was a high profit commodity so lots of enslaved Africans used 0 Barbados had an African majority population 0 Tobacco cultivation was done mainly by white indentured servants 0 Tobacco was less profitable than sugar so the population of indentured servants compared to African slaves was smaller 0 Sugar cultivation tied the economies of Barbados and New England 0 Barbados cultivated sugar for export 0 New English provided timber for shipping and boxing sugar 0 Sugar boom in 1520s rise in slavery decrease in indentured servitude 0 African slaves were cheaper than indentured servants which is another reason why slavery outpaced indentured servitude o Slave Code of 1661 legislation in Barbados regarding slave treatment 0 Deputized free whites so that they could regulate slaves o Prescribed punishment for runaways and disobedient slaves o This slave code was adopted by many slavebased colonial societies in mainland US like South Carolina Virginia Colony Indentured Servitude and Slavery 0 Virginia Colony in the 17th and 18th centuries o In the early 1600s black Virginians had the possibility to create a free peasant class I This possibility was shot down in the Virginia House of Burgess when it passed legislation which separated whites and blacks and discriminated against blacks 0 Virginia had mainly used indentured servitude I Indentured servitude was the 1St unfree bondage system in Virginia colony I By the last 1600s slavery started to replace indentured servitude o Indentured Servitude o Indentured servants bonded laborers who worked 37 years under a master until the end of their contract 0 Headright system every free adult who traveled to certain colonies could receive 50 acres of land upon their arrival I They were eligible to receive 50 more acres of land for every person ie Indentured Servant they brought with them I Headright system was a way to entice people to come to colonial America 0 People who wanted to go to America but couldn t afford it sold themselves off as indentured servants I They entered into a contract with a person where the contractee promised to work for a specified amount of years once in America if the contractor promised to pay for hisher voyage to America I Goal get to America work off debt get land become rich I Typical indentured servant young man or woman 1826 years old quotfreedom dues surviving the indentured term usually rewarded with clothes tools A of indentured servants actually survived to the end of their labor term I of indentured servants died due to diseases and overwork 0 Little standards in place regarding the treatment of indentured servants I Masters would physically sexually and emotionally abuse their servants 0 Some indentured servants tried to run away I If captured and returned more time was added to their labor term 0 Slavery in the Virginia colony o 1619 1St arrival of African slaves to the Virginia colony I Arrived on the Dutch ship White Lion o Africans came on a Dutch ship because most early slaves to Virginia came from Dutch colonies in the Dutch West Indies Caribbean 0 because of this these slaves were Atlantic Creoles I Knew European and African languages I Baptized Christians I Skilled in agriculture 0 These early slaves negotiated with their masters to pay for their freedom I Goal of the slaves gain freedom get land become selfsufficient o By the late 1600s the slave system became stricter harder to gain freedom 0 1660s passage of statues regarding the status of slaves I Est a system of perpetual hereditary slavery o 1667 legislation passed that said that slaves who were baptizedconverted Christians didn t have the legal grounds to sue for their freedom 0 1670s slavery became based more on racial lines I Emergence of racebased slave system as we know it o Bacon s Rebellion I 1670s watershed event in VA colony that hardened slavery along race lines I Governor of VA colony William Berkeley I 1674 Nathaniel Bacon English aristocrat arrived in VA colony 0 Thought he was entitled to Governorship o Started a rivalry with Berkeley I 1675 fighting between Natives in Maryland and Virginia begins I King Phillips s War also going on in the New England region I As a result of the KPWar Berkeley was worried about a panNative alliance against the colonists 0 Worked to try to keep peace between the Natives and Euros I Bacon on the other hand wanted to fight the Natives I Berkeley has Bacon captured but later releases him I Bacon and his supporters start attacking Native villages 0 Bacon issues a statement to all present and ex indentured servants and slaves of Berkeley 0 Statement if you join me I will free you 0 Coalition of white indentured servants and black Africans forms to aid Bacon I Bacon and his new coalition force burn Jamestown I Berkeley issues a statement to the new coalition forces 0 Stop fighting and I will grant you your freedom I Bacon dies and the fighting ends Berkeley won I Significance led to rise of chattel slavery in the colonies o Chattel slavery labor system based solely on enslaved Africans 0 To prevent another alliance between white indentured servants and enslaved Africans get rid of the indentured servant system and only use slavery 0 Thus the main system of unbonded labor shifted from white indentured servants to black enslaved Africans making unfree labor a racebased system 0 Later on most slaves started coming to the VA colony straight from Africa rather than from other Caribbean colonies 0 These new slaves were not Atlantic Creoles 0 These new slaves were seen by the Virginians as foreign and inferior because they lacked knowledge of European culture 1680 VA House of Burgesses passed a law called quotPreventing Negro Insurrection o It forbade slaves from having weapons o In 1738 the law was extended to forbid all people of color from having weapons 1691 legislation passed which outlawed interracial marriage 1691 legislation passed which outlawed relations between black men and white women 0 Prevent colored offspring that would be considered free since freeunfree status was passed from mother to child 1699 legislation stating that every free black person had to leave the VA colony within 6 months of obtaining freedom 0 Purpose was to prevent an increase in the free black population in the VA colony I Meant to preserve the social and racial hierarchy of the VA colony Slave Codes of 1795 o Capstone of establishing chattel slavery in the VA colony o Harsh regulations on what a slave could and couldn t do as well as what a master could and couldn t do 0 Fines were in terms of tobacco Slavery in New England 0 New England s economy was based on shipping rather than plantation agriculture 0 Therefore slavery was slow to rise in that region since labor wasn t in high demand 0 1646 first enslaved Africans arrived in New England 0 When the ship arrived the ship s captain was actually charged with kidnapping and told to return the Africans 0 1670s Boston merchants established a small scale slave trade network 0 Overall New England colony didn t outright reject slavery but it didn t grow a dependence on it like the VA colony did Key Words 0 Chattel slavery o ndentured servitude o Bacon s Rebellion o Creolization
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