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Week 2 Notes

by: Chiara Davis

Week 2 Notes 41657

Marketplace > Rowan University > History > 41657 > Week 2 Notes
Chiara Davis
Western Civilization Since 1660
Anthony L Nardini

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Week 2 of lecture notes
Western Civilization Since 1660
Anthony L Nardini
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chiara Davis on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 41657 at Rowan University taught by Anthony L Nardini in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization Since 1660 in History at Rowan University.

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Date Created: 09/11/15
Western Civilization since 1600 Notes Week 2 Acton39s Final Call quotIf in our uncertainty we must often err it may be sometimes better to risk excess in rigour than in indulgence for then at least we do no injury by loss of principlequot Indulgence vs Rigour Indulgence vs Principle According to Acton what is the role of morality in historical investigation It39s important to have a sense of morality quotl exhort you to never debase the moral currency or to lower the standard of rectitude but to try others by the nal maxim that governs your own livesquot 0 What dangers lie in imposing moral standards of the past Ex The Middle Ages the Crusades Voltaire A Treatise on Toeration 1763 0 Need to quotconsider the timesquot Foundations of the Modern West The Scienti c Revolution 0 Much like history life is a constant pursuit for truth Understanding and combining chaos Desire for meaning Desire for order Change explain Epistemology From episteme and logos GK quotknowledgequot and quotstudyquot The study of knowledge and how it39s justi ed Four Categories 1 TraditionRevered Knowledge gt Based on assumptions gained through experience overtime gt Subjective gt Often viewed as quotwisdomquot 0 Knowledge gained through age gt Often connected to ecological conditions 2 ReligiousSacred Revelations gt Knowledge given to us through God or many gods gt Humans as passive receivers gt Devine as source of knowledge gt Human inability to comprehend awe of the world 3 Reason Logical Demonstration gt Arithmetic 4 Repeated ObservationPractical Experience 0 Prior to 17th and 18th century a combination of all four produces knowledge However numerous truths remain unfound and inconsistencies persist especially in exploration of the natural world Universe Natural Philosophy theory Geocentrism Universe is Earth centered Based on geometry of Ptolemy 2nCI century AD and natural philosophy of Aristotle gt Earth re air water 0 Earth and water heavy sit still gt Heavens atherquintessential perfect incorruptible substance Natural Philosophy supported by Christianity 0 Both through biblical connections and schoasticism Views pace God39s wisdom and power rst not the abilities of man Desire for orthodoxy Heliocentrism and its supporters First modern astronomer to posit quotheliocentrismquot Aristarchus of Samos 4th century BC Mikolas Kopernik aka Nicholas Copernicus 1473 1543 0 Work of Copernicus continued by German Johann Kepler 1571 1630 Assistant to Danish geocentrio Tycho Brahe Uses Brahe39s data to support Copernicus39 re ne ideas Eiptica orbits of planetary bodies motion 0 Theory vs theory both supported by evidence Galileo Galileo Gaiei 1564 1642 First great experimental physicist Connects planetary motion with terrestrial motion dynamics Theories include uniform acceleration parabolic paths inertia How to explain the supernova of 1604 Publishes Dialogue on the two chief world systems 1632 Synthesis under Newton 0 Isaac Newton 1642 1727 Royal Society or London Principia Mathematica 1686 Creates not only basis for heliocentrism but also standard for physics into 20th century 0 Thomas Kuhn The Structure of Scienti c Revolution 0 Science not as smooth transition from error to truth but rather a series of c ses Triumph of heliocentrism embodies victory of new worldview new standard ofjudgement science Universe is mechanistic New place for humans in the world New relationships Scienti c Method Part 1 Inductive MethodInduction Francis Bacon 1561 1626 English noble rose to become Lord Chancellor during reign of King James I in 1618 gt Short lived career due to debts charged with corruption imprisoned in Tower of London 1620 Novum Organum New Method 1620 No vum Organ um Aim is to create a new method for stability in knowledge Why is dependence on human reason problematic Four ldols Tribe quotfalse assertion that the sense of man is the measure of all thingsquot Cave quoteveryone has a cave or den of his own which refracts and discolors the light of naturequot Experiences lead to preconditioned system Marketplace quotwords plainly force and overrule the understanding and throw all into confusion and lead men away into numberless empty controversies and all idle fancies Communication Theatre quotall the received systems are but so many stage plays representing worlds of their own creation after an unreal and scenic fashionquot Minds of men clouded by outside forces deception in reason along with religion quotSuperstition and the blind and immoderate zeal or religionquot Four idols corrupt humanity A Posteriori and posterity How will new method instigate progress quotFrom works and experiments to extract causes and axioms and again from those causes and axioms new works and experiments as a legitimate interpreter or naturequot Science as uni ed collective effort Part 2 Deductive MethodDeduction Rene Descartes 1596 1650 Born in La Haye now Descartes in the Poitou region of France Has quotepiphanyquot while on military campaign Considered a mathematician philosopher and metaphysician gt Metaphysics study of quot rst causesquot exploration of non physical world that which does not change quotbeingquot Publishes Discourse on Method in French 1637 gt Discours de la methode pour bein conduire sa raison et chercher la verite dans les sciences Discourse on Method 0 How does Descartes approach his study in was similar to Bacon quotI also learned not to hold on too rmly to those truths which I had accepted merely by example and customquot quotI nally decided to make mysefan object of studyquot The Principle of Doubt Metaphysical search for truth based on rational inquiry quotSeeing that our senses sometimes deceive us I was willing to imagine that there existed nothing precisely as it appeared to usquot 0 What cannot be doubted or called into question Cogto ergo sum or more correctly je pense doncje suis Promotion of community quotPersuade all who truly have the common good of mankind at heart to communicate to me the experiments they had already made and to assist me in those that remain to be madequot A priori a posteriori Scienti c Method 0 New paradigm Primacy of rational inquiry and empiricism to form basis of truth Soon all matters approached in quotscienti cquot way Supremacy by mastering the world Belieffaith in power of humanity Science is the New Black 0 Scienti c Revolution brings about change in worldview universe as mechanistic predictable Newton39s laws of motion Scienti c method as mean to truth human inquiry combination of induction and deduction gt Application if scienti c method to quotnonscienti cquot realm New Methods New Conclusions 0 Both Hobbes and Locke represent the increasing emphasis on human agency to improve life Represent the quotearlyquot Enlightenment Not that humans previously were uninterested in making life better it is how they argue and their justi cation that are unique gt Discoverunderstand system reorganize it for bene t of world Example of Chaos The English Civil War 0 After death of Elizabeth I in 1603 tensions increase between monarch and parliament Stuart Dynasty Issues include taxation who pays for wars religious contro Church of England vs dissenters fears of Catholicism ega statues roya councils English vs Scottish vs Irish Hostilities breakout 1642 gt Royalist NorthWest vs Parliamentarian SouthEast help from Scots By 1649 royaist forces defeated Charles beheaded The Shortlived Commonwealth and the Restoration 0 Oliver Cromwell establishes the Commonwealth of England Scotland and Ireland 1649 Declared quotLord Protectorquot 1653 After death in 1658 commonwealth fails 1660 return of Charles II Restoration of English monarchy Thomas Hobbes 1588 1679 and Leviathan 1651 Educated at Oxford travels abroad Translates Thucydides39 History of the Peoponnesian War 1629 Contemporary of Bacon Descartes Galileo Explores human nature and the structure of government in Leviathan What is Hobbes39 view on the nature of man gt Materialistic contentious desire for selfpreservation gt Causes for quarrel What is the natural state of man gt War


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