Week 4 notes
Week 4 notes Sociology 100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirsten Swikert on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Sociology 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dr. James Kanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
Conformity • Belonging to groups puts significant pressure on members to conform o The Asch Experiment • Informational conformity: questioning your own result when everyone else is answering with something else, especially when the group is unanimous • Normative conformity: going along with what the group is doing even if you know everyone else is wrong • When conformity goes too far there is the rise of “group think” o Pressure to agree overpowers individual member’s willingness to weigh alternatives Social Control • Despite individual role performances, societies must have conformity and predictability from its members • Social control: mechanisms for ensuring conformity and maintaining social order o Informal social control: reactions of peers (informal) and others that encourage conformity to rules and norms o Internalization: we learn (socialization) and adopt acceptable behaviors • Formal social control: official authorities enforce rules and laws often apply official sanctions to deviance Deviance • Deviance refers to behaviors, beliefs, and/or appearances that fall outside the “normal” range of social expectations • Social scientists generally reserve the term deviance for violations of significant social expectations o Importance of negative reactions o Stigma: extreme social disapproval (a mark of disgrace) because of some personal characteristic • Absolute deviance vs relative deviance o Ideas about deviance change with the time, place, and culture Criminalizing Deviance • Some deviance is serious enough to be called crime o Crimes: acts that violate criminal statutes or laws § There are more than 3000 federal, state, and local statutes • Big questions: o How much crime is there? o Who commits crime? § Age: young more than old § Gender: men much more likely than women § Race: whites more, but blacks and Hispanics are more likely (racial profiling) o How much crime is there?: two major sources of violent and property crime data § FBI: Uniform Crime Report (UCR) • Crimes reported to law enforcement § Department of justice: national crime victimizations survey • Survey that finds more crime (2-3 times more) § Tennessee has the highest rate of violent crime in the country § Population is going up, crime rate is going down • Exercising control with deviance and crime o The criminal justice system: formal control institutions and processes that enforce criminal law § 4 purposes of punishment • Incarceration is primary form (incapacitation: the US puts more people in prison than any other country) • Rehabilitation • Deterrence • Retribution
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