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PChem Ma 9/9, 9/11

by: Kayli Antos

PChem Ma 9/9, 9/11 CHEM 351

Marketplace > Towson University > Chemistry > CHEM 351 > PChem Ma 9 9 9 11
Kayli Antos
GPA 3.37
Ana Soto

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Chapter: Kinetic Theory of Gases (cont) Topics: Equipartition Of Energy Theorem, Motions Of A Molecule, Number Of Degrees Of Freedom, Equipartition Of Energy For One Mole Of Gas Chapter: the Fir...
Ana Soto
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayli Antos on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 351 at Towson University taught by Ana Soto in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Biochemistry in Chemistry at Towson University.

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Date Created: 09/11/15
PCJZem Ma Fall 2015 Kinetic Theo Of Gases lcontl 0 Equzpartjtjon OfEIzergV T bearer gtllt The energy of a molecule is divided equally among all its types of motions and degrees of freedom 0 Motions Of A Molecule gtllt Translation is when all atoms in a molecule move in the same direction This motion can be along the X Y or Z axis Rotation is when all atoms in a molecule are moving in the same circular direction This can be around the X Y or Z aXis Vibration is the relative movement of atoms which is not in the same direction This motion can be along a single plane but does not have to be 0 Number Of Degrees Of Freedom gtllt Type of Motion Monoatomic Linear Molecule NonLinear Molecules Molecule translation 3 3 3 rotation O 2 3 vibration O 3N 5 3N 6 total 3 SN 3N N the number of atoms in the molecule 0 E quzpartz39tz39on OfEnergV For One Mole Of Gas gtllt For one mole each translational and rotational degree of freedom possesses an energy equal to 12RT Each vibrational degree of freedom possesses an energy equal to RT The First Law Of Thermodynamics 0 Heat gtllt gtllt Heat is the energy that is transferred into or out of a system due to a temperature difference between it and its surroundings Heat is considered positive if it flows into the system and negative if it flows out q C T2 T1 q is heat I C is the heat capacity IK T1 is the initial temperature and T2 is the final temperature For this equation assume that C is constant and that there is no phase change Heat Capacity 0 Heat capacity is the measurement of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of an object by l CK It is an extensive property 5 is the molar heat capacity which is the heat capacity divided by the total number of moles and is measured in ImolK o Cs is the specific heat capacity Which is the heat capacity divided by the total mass and is measured in IkgK If C is dependent on T C is not a constant it can be expressed as dq C dT or C 2 the dT represents an infinitesimal change in temperature Some ways to express this relationship in integrals T2 T2 qu le CdT q nfT2 CdT The heat capacity at constant pressure is expressed as CP The molar heat capacity of constant pressure is expressed as 5p q 11f2 CPdT The equation for the molar heat capacity at a constant volume is q n f CVdT Restricted T bermod Vngmjcs constant pressure isobaric AP O constant temperature isothermalisothermic AT 2 O constant volume isochoric AV 0 no heat transferred adiabatic q 0 final state initial state cyclic no change in any property of the system Reversible Path A path in Which a process can be reversed at any point by a small change of the variable that is controlling the process Calon39metgz The measurement of the changes in heat that accompany chemical reactions is called calorimetry Calonmeter o A calorimeter is the set up that is used to measure these changes in heat 0 All calorimeters have at least 3 basic components 1 A small container made of very conductive material in Which the process is housed 2 A large container for the water bath or other method of measuring temperature transfer The smaller container is inside this larger one This must be made of a material that is a good insulator 3 A thermometer to measure the temperature of the water bath It is crucial to know the heat capacity of the calorimeter This can be determined by knowing the heat given off by a reaction and the temperature change of this reaction in this calorimeter


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