Life Cycle Development - Week 3 Notes
Life Cycle Development - Week 3 Notes PSYC 2310
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cristina Saiz on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2310 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Lawrence Cohn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Life Cycle Developmemt in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Week Three TUESDAY Teratogens environmenta sources of birth defects such as Thalidomide prescription drug for women to help control morning sickness during early pregnancy When they used this treatment on mice and other animals the drug seemed safe until 1963 when a pediatrician in Europe noticed that babies were being born with large birth defects and it turned out that this drug affected about 8000 babies Cause when teratogens are introduced during the embryonic stage of development it affects the embryo because the organs are starting to develop during this stage Alcohol when consumed in large quantity if fetus is born to a heavy drinker a woman who consumes 5 or more drinks a day there is a 30 chance that the fetus will be born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS and could be born with a small head abnormally wide set eyes andor malproportioned head Cigarettes considered a teratogen because babies born to a heavy smoker are born with a low birth weight Mg licit amp illicit drugs Radiation such as XRays Rubella German measles Pollutants mercury in fish or polluted water lead in paint asbestos in old houses etc Strei will stress affect developing embryofetus Dr Cohn then gave us an example of when his wife was pregnant when they first moved to El Paso She was 6 12 months pregnant and the OB she went to told her she was at risk to go into premature labor and was put on bedrest for the rest of her pregnancy They also didn t know how to work the ac unit and it was extremely hot in their new house so Dr Cohn s wife was stressed due to the heat being placed on bedrest How could we measure stress affecting the baby Develop an animal model with monkeys and tests how a sudden loud noise would affect the animal s stress levels Resulted in the blood flow to the fetus slowing because mother goes into fightflight response Studied women who lost their spouse toward the end of their pregnancy Prenata Stress was at 14 N167 subjects Postnata stress was at 65 N168 subjects Percentage of subjects displaying behavioral disorders It was reported that those under prenatal stress had greater presence of behavioral disorder than those who had postnatal stress Ended class Tuesday with a 3 minute video quotPortrait of Lotte a researcher took a picture of his daughter every week from birth to 12 years of age and compiled a video of it THURSDAY William James quotthe world of a newborn is a blooming buzzing confusion he thought babies were just a bundle of reflexes Apgar Scale five subtests that comprise the scale Appearance color Pulse heart rate Grimace reflex irritability Activity muscle tone amp Respiration breathing Newborns are rated 1 minute after birth and then again at 5 minutes m n O 1 D Sign Heart Rate beats per minute 100 or more bpm lt1OO bpm Not detectable Respiratory Effort Strong cry amp breathing Irregular shallow breaths Not Breathing Reflex Vigorous Response Weak Response No Response Muscle Tone Resilient Lack of Resistance Complete Flaccidity Skin Color Pink All Over Partially Pink Bluish or Yellowish Ol NOI NOl NOI NOI N Walking refle baby takes a step when mother holds him upright on his feet not old enough to walk on his own Sucking refle baby puts thumb in mouth and sucks on it Grasping reer baby will grab on tightly Reflexes in Infancy Re ex Stimulus Response Moro Loud noise or loss of support Legs up back arches arms forward Grasp Object placed on palms Hands grasp objects Sucking Touch lips Sucking movement Rooting Touch cheek Turn toward touch Babinski Touch sole of foot Foot twists in toes fan out Swimming Baby is immersed in water Holds breath swims with arms andlegs Infancy Research Techniques Habituation Preferential looking Violation of expectation Reinforcement M Can infants distinguish too sounds B vs P Measured again with pressure transducer in a pacifier No stimulus baby gave constant sucking Saying B sound over and over sucking increases but then gradually declines when baby gets bored of hearing it over and over again then Introduce P sound over and over sucking increases again but then slows when baby gets bored of hearing it habituation refers to decrease in responding after repeated presentations at 1 month we find that in response to new sound baby increases sucking and can tell between B amp P sound Rods amp cones present at birth Rods are light sensitive photoreceptors allow us to see in the dark Cones are photoreceptors that allow us to see color visual acuity Fovia is missing has not formed yet Responsible in part for visual acuity Lens is immature and can t bring things into focus Babies are very nearsighted but definitely not blind at birth Study done by Fantz Placed babies in a bassinet and placed 4 stimuli above them Found that baby looked at certain stimuli more than other stimuli and for a longer amount of time Young babies are attracted to the angular cues of a face not the actual face of a person It isn t until about 3 months that they like to look at and notice faces Objects become more in focus from birth to adulthood Babies can distinguish between colors Newborn can distinguish grey from orange yellow green or red At 2 months distinguish yellow from green At 3 months distinguish yellow from red At 4 months they are almost on par with adults This tells us that babies are more than just a bundle of reflexes and they are more competent than previously perceived Depth perception Visual cliff they have the baby sitting on a long table and part of the table is Plexiglas The mother calls her child to her to see whether the baby will stop before reaching the Plexiglas At 6 months the baby will crawl off the quotedgequot and does not realize the concept of depth perception At 10 months baby stops and doesn t crawl off and Or we could change the measurement procedure for depth Take a 10 day old baby Take a piece of paper a small distance away from the baby and move it closer to the baby s face when the piece of paper gets close enough to the babies face the baby starts to squirm amp try to get out of the way QUIZ 2 MOVED TO THURSDAY