Chapter 3 Notes
Chapter 3 Notes HNES 250
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Dosso on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HNES 250 at North Dakota State University taught by Elizabeth Hilliard in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Nutrition science in Nursing and Health Sciences at North Dakota State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Chapter 3 Notes Hunger is the feeling of needing food Appetite is wanting to eat something whether you39re hungry or not What triggers hungerthirst The hypothalamus in the brain stimulates hormones which trigger the sense of hunger or thirst Nerve cells can also register the absence of food in the stomach which tell the brain to activate the thirsthunger sense o If blood sugar is low our bodies use the stored glucose in our body via glucagon o Glucagon stimulates hunger in order to rejuvenate our sugar supply lnsulin is preset during high levels of blood glucose and indicates a sense of fullness or satiation Satiety Protein helps keep you full longer meaning it has the highest satiety Fat is second in satiety and carbohydrates are the lowest 0 This means that after eating protein you won t feel the need to eat again for a much longer time than if you eat carbohydrates 0 Fiber is hard to digest so it has a large satiety examples of high ber foods would be fruits Environmental cues that affect appetite Sight Smell Taste Texture Sound Emotions maybe eating makes you happy 0 Culture or family values 0 How when and what you eat as a child Eating Mechanical and chemical processes 1 Digestion breaking down food 2 Absorption absorbing nutrient 3 Elimination Excretion via urination or bowel movements Absorption nutrients obtained from food moving from the GI tract into the circulation From Start to Finish accessory organ 1 Mouth a Chemical amp Mechanical breakdown b Enzymes Water Bicarbonate Mucus for antibodies 2 Esophagus a Transports food down with peristalsis rhythmic contraction of muscles 3 Stomach a Chemical amp Mechanical breakdown b Hydrocholoric acid enzymes intrinsic factors mucus for protection c A LOT of protein breakdown d Mixes everything together into chime like food sludge 4 Pancrease a Chemical breakdown b Secretes enzymes 5 Gallbladder 6 Liver VERY IMPORTANT ORGAN a Chemical breakdown b Excretes bie c Regulates where everything goes 7 Small Intestine a Chemical breakdown amp absorption b Na bicarbonate neutralizes acids c 3 sections i Deuodenum primary absorption site Jejunum Iieum d WaIIs are lled with folds to increase surface area which increases absorption i The folds have various villi to aide in absorption e Bacteria or normal ora i Fight infection ii Help digestion iii Synthesize vitamins 8 Large Intestine a Water absorption 9 Coon Rectum Anus a Excretion via peristalsis ENZYMES ENHANCE THE DIGESTIVE PROCESSES USUALLY THROUGH HYDROLYSIS HORMONES ARE PRODUCED BY ENDOCRINE GLANDS View Tables 31 amp 32 for Enzymes and Hormones Absorption of nutrients has two routes 0 Vascular system circulatory Lymphatic system In the Small intestine are all the folds villi microvilli ect Inside the vii are spaces known as Crypts 4 types of Absorption Passive Diffusion can move freely without help ex Water Facilitated Diffusion Needs a carrier to cross membrane 0 Active Transport moves against the concentration gradient and requires energy ex Glucose Endocytosis Pinocytosis its active transport via engul ng the nutrient BLOOD amp LYMPH TRANSPORT This is our bodies way of transporting nutrients throughout our body 0 Blood picks up water soluble nutrients Lacteals in the lymph system pick up lipids and fat soluble vitamins o Lymph nodes are used for ltration 0 Cells create chylomicrons out of the nutrients obtained Absorption can be inhibited or enhanced by other nutrients Ex Vitamin C enhances iron Stress and anxiety slows everything down including the GI tract and leads to constipation Dif culties in the GI tract can lead to malabsorption which means less nutrients and your body isn39t functioning 100 anymore 0 Ex Heartburn Ulcers Re ux Diahrea dehydration because of how rapid nutrients are moving thru the body IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE Allergy vs Intolerance 0 Allergy Immune response occurs The allergy is to the protein type in the food not the food as an entirety Could lead to anaphylactic shock rare 0 Intolerance GI response Gas pain diarrhea constipation Ex lactose Two main in ammatory bowel diseases Crohn s Disease Small Intestine Ulcerative Colitis Large Intestine 0 Both end up with nutrient de ciency Celiac Disease 0 Genetic immune response to gluten 0 In ammation erodes the villi causing malabsorption 0 Avoid wheat rye and barley FODMAP Fermentable oligodimonosaccharides and polyols carbohydrates 0 Limiting FODMAP less gas 0 Less fructose apples 0 Less fructans artichokes garlic 0 Sugar polyols stone fruites
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