General Chemistry- Week 2 Notes
General Chemistry- Week 2 Notes CHEM 101 - 08
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Weller on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 101 - 08 at Radford University taught by Timothy J Fuhrer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at Radford University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
General Chemistry Week 2 Notes Chapter 2 Atoms convert metal into gold Example Copper and tin make bronze which is stronger than copper because the atoms t together well Gives the overall mixture more strength and taught that matter was continuously dividable one could divide a pierce of gold an in nite number of times if he had the right equipment and still have a dividable piece of gold disagreed and taught that at some point along the way you would nd the smallest possible piece of gold the atom which comes from the Greek word atmos meaning indivisible Mass is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions Lavoisier Nuclear reactions can make changes in mass EMCquot2 energy can be converted to mass or viceversa Different samples of a pure chemical compound always contain the same proportion of the elements by mass Proust Elements can combine in different ways to form different chemical compounds with mass ratios that are small wholenumber multiples of each other Examples NO N20 N02 N203 N204 N205 Law observed to always be the case gt39ltTheory Explanations for laws Chemical Compounds pure substance made of 2 or more elements joined together in a speci c ratio Ex H20 NaCI CaCI2 ALCL3 symbols and numbers that indicate the ratio of elements in a chemical compound Describes a chemical reaction by list the reactant s formula on the left side of an arrow and the products on the right HCL NaOH l H20 NaCI H2 504 NaOH l 2H20 2NazSO4 Dalton s Atomic Theory 1803 Eements are made up of tiny particles called atoms Each element is characterized by the mass of its atoms Atoms of the same element have the same mass atoms of different elements have different masses The chemical combination of elements to make different chemical compounds occurs when atoms join in small wholenumber ratios Chemical reactions only rearrange how atoms are combined in compounds the atoms themselves don t change Electrons amp Famous People to Note Discovered by 1 Thompson in the late 1800s via cathode ray tube experiments and was able to calculate the charge to mass ratio for the electron ll Thwrnaen e Experiments EEFlErim39Ent 2 Experiment 3 Experiment L Themaen dernenetfated that cathade rage have negattee clinges L 39 Experiment 2 He ineestigated wiltether er net raea eeuld be de ected he an Electreinetei electric eld with thie evacuated cethede ray tube created an ane end with naea phea phereecent paint EHPEFEITI39EHt 1 Experiment 3 He rneaeured the maestechacge ratie at the cathdde rape her here much they were de ected by a magnetic tiei and ride much energy they carried Robert Millikan was then able to calculate the charge and mass of an electron using data from his quotoildrop experiments IlIiliI sprayed in ne dreplete Pinhele Iray to produce charge an drcplet up Electrically charged hraea plates ELECTRDDE rnpemieieeiuueu Teleece Vic EVEP39EWM Charged ail dreplet under cheereatien The Nucleus number of protons in an atom s nucleus Also the number of electrons in a neutral atom Number of protons Z number of neutrons N Atoms with identical atomic numbers but different mass Symbol containing the periodic table abbreviation the atomic number and the mass number for a particular isotope Atomic Mass and the Mole One twelfth of the mass of a carbon 12 atom 09905 10quot24g EX Penny Copper before 1932 and today made out of copper zinc weighted average of the isotopic masses of an element s naturally occurring isotopes The amount of an element whose mass in grams numerically equal to it s atomic mass 6022141 10quot23 atoms Mixtures and Components A blend of 2 or more substances added together in some arbitrary proportions without chemically changing the individual substances The force that holds atoms together in a chemical compound A bond that occurs when two atoms share several electrons The unit of matter than when two or more atoms are joined by covalent bonds Molecular Formulas and Lewis Structure A formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in one molecule of a compound A molecular representation that shows the connections among atoms by using lines to represent covalent bonds Ethyl Alcohol Dimenthyl Alcohol Molecular Formula C2 H6 0 C2 H6 0 Structural Formula IH IIl IHl IIll Hc co H Hc o co H H H H H Condensed Structure CH3 CH3 OH CH3OCH3 A molecular representation that shows both the connections among the atoms and locations of lonepair valence electrons Way of drawing structures in which CC bonds and CH are understood rather than shown Has carbon molecular tend to be larger so there are more ways to arrange those atoms lons and Ionic Bonds A charged atom or group of atoms A positively charged ion A negatively charged ion a bond that results from transfer of one or more electrons between atoms usually a metal and a nonmetal or polyatomic ion Or the electrical attractions between ions of opposite charge in a crystal Naming Ions Main group metals are named by identifying the element name and adding the word ion Transition metals can form more than one charge so a roman numeral in parentheses is added between the element name and the word ion Ex Fequot3 lron lll ion Anions are named by replacing the ending of an element with an ide and adding the word quotion Ex Cl Chloride ion Polyatomic ions Polyatomic ions are like molecules but they have a charge and form compounds with ions
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