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Date Created: 07/02/14
PSY 101 Chapter 1 Notes The Field of Psychology Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Behaviorincludes all of our toward or overt actions and reactions such as talking facial expressions and movement Mental processes refers to internal covert activity of our minds such as thinking feeling and remembering Psychoogy39s Goals Description involves observing a behavior and noting everything about it what is happening where it happens to whom it happens and what circumstances it seems to happen Finding explanations for behavior is a very important step in the process of forming theories of behavior Theory is a general explanation of a set of observations or facts The goal of description provides the observations and the goal of explanation helps to build the theory Prediction is determining what will happen in the future The purpose of the last of the four goals of psychology is changing or modifying behavior Control is the modification of some behavior to change a behavior from an undesirable one to a desirable one Wundt lntrospection and the Laboratory Psychology is only about 130 years old Famous philosophers such as Plato Aristotle and Descartes wrote about the relationship of the soul mind and body Philosophers tried to understand or explain the human mind and its connection to the physical body Laboratory in Leipzig Germany in 1879 Wilhelm Wundt attempted to apply scientific principles to study of the human mind Wundt believed that the mind was made up of thoughts experiences emotions and other basic elements Objective introspection is the process of objectively examining and measuring one39s own thoughts and mental activities Wundt is called the quotfather of psychologyquot Titchener and Structuralism in America Edward Titchener was one of Wundt39s students Structuralism is the focus of study was the structure of the mind Believed that every experience could be broken down into its individual emotions and sensa ons State of being aware of external events could be broken down into its basic elements Titchener also believed that objective introspection could be used on thoughts and physical sensations Margaret Washburn was the first woman to receive a PhD in psychology In 1908 she published a book on animal behavior The Animal Mind Structuralism died out in the early 1900s William James and Functionalism Harvard University was the first school in America to offer classes in psychology William James has a textbook on the subject Principles of Psychology James was interested in the importance of consciousness to everyday life rather than the analysis Believed that scientific study of consciousness itself was not yet possible Focused on how the mind allows people to function in the real world Functionalism is how the mind allows people to adapt live work and play Heavily influenced by Charles Danvin39s ideas of natural selection Mary Whiton Calkins was denied a PhD degree by Harvard University because she was a woman She established a psychological laboratory at Wellesley College Became the first female president of the American Psychological Association Francis Cecil Sumner because the first AfricanAmerican to earn a PhD at Clark University is assumed by many to be the father of AfricanAmerican psychology Functionalism offered an alternative viewpoint to the structuralists Educational psychology is the studying the application of psychological concepts to educa on IndustrialOrganizational psychology is studying the application of psychological concepts to businesses organizations and industry Functionalism played a part in modern perspectives as well Gestalt Psychology The Whole ls Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts Max Wertheimer objected to the structuralist point of view He felt that psychological events like perceiving and sensing couldn39t be broken down into any smaller elements and still be properly understood Gestalt psychologists believed that people seek out patterns wholes in the sensory information Gestalt psychology is quotan organized wholequot or quotconfigurationquot which fits well with the focus on studying whole patterns rather than small pieces of them Gestalt ideas are part of the study of cognitive psychology a field focusing on perception and learning memory thought processes and problem solving Sigmund Freud39s Theory of Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud was a medical doctor specialized in neurology His patients suffered from nervous disorders with no physical cause He thought that the cause might be in the mind Proposed an unconscious mind into which we repress all our threatening urges and desues Stressed the importance of early childhood experiences believing that personality was formed during the first six years of life Anna Freud became known as the ego movement in psychology that produced a famous psychologists in the study of personality development Erik Erikson Freudian psychoanalysis the theory and therapy based on Freud39s ideas is the basis of psychotherapy a process in which a trained psychological professional helps a person gain insights into and change his or her behavior Pavlov Watson and the Dawn of Behaviorism Ivan Pavlov is famous for his work with dogs showing that an involuntary reaction such as salivation could cause an unrelated stimulus John B Watson wanted to bring psychology back to focus on a scientific inquiry Behaviorism challenges the functionalist viewpoint and focuses on behavior Freud believed that behavior stems from unconscious motivation Watson believed that behavior is learned Observable behavior is something that could be directly seen and measured Freud believed that a phobia is a symptom of underlying repressed conflict and can39t be quotcuredquot Watson believed that phobias are learned through the process of conditioning Watson is famous for his Little Albert experiment Watson wanted to prove that all behavior was a result of a stimulus response relationship Freud and his ideas are about unconscious motivation Counterconditioning is to replace a negative response with a positive response Psychodynamic Perspective Psychodynamic perspective is focused on the development of a sense of self and discovery of other motivations behind a person39s behavior than sexual motivations Less emphasis on sex and sexual motivations and more emphasis on the development of a sense of self social and interpersonal relationships Behavioral Perspective BF Skinner took the lead Operant conditioning is behavioral responses that are followed by pleasurable consequences that are reinforced Humanistic Perspective Called the quotthird forcequot in psychology Humanism is a reaction to both psychoanalytic theory and behaviorism Psychoanalytic focus on sexual development and behaviorism39s emphasis on external forces professionals began to develop a perspective that would allow them to focus on people39s ability to direct their own lives Humanists believed in free will which is the freedom to choose their own destiny and sef actualization which is the achievement to one39s full potential Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are the two earliest and famous founders of humanism Humanism now exists as a form of psychotherapy aimed at self understanding and self improvement Cognitive Perspective Cognitive psychology focuses on how people think remember store and use information Gestalt psychologists supported the study of mental processes of learning Cognitive perspective focuses on memory intelligence perception thought processes problem solving language and learning Cognitive neuroscience includes the study of physical workings of the brain and nervous system when engaged in memory thinking and other cognitive processes They use MRs fMRS and PET scans Sociocultural Perspective Socioculture perspective combines social psychology and cultural psychology Social psychology is the study of groups social roles and rules of social actions and relationships Cultural psychology is the study of cultural norms values and expectations Related in the effect that people have one another as a culture whether its individually or a large group Lev Vygotsky used sociocultural concepts in forming his sociocultural theory of children39s cognitive development Sociocultural perspective is important because it reminds people that the way they behave or think is influenced not only by whether they are alone with friends or in a crowd Crosscultural research also fits within this perspective The contrasts and comparisons of a behavior or issue are studied in two or more cultures Presence of other people lessened the chance that a person in trouble would receive help Bystander effect believes to be the result of diffusion of responsibility which is the tendency to feel that someone else is responsible for taking action when others are present Biopsychological Perspective Biopsychology is the study of the biological bases of behavior and mental processes Neuroscience is the study of the physical structure function and development of the nervous system Biopsychological perspective is when human and animal behavior attributes to biological events occurring in the body Research includes sleep emotions aggression sexual behavior and learning and memory along with disorders Schizophrenia is a mental disorder involving delusions hallucinations and extremely distorted thinking Human sexual orientation is related to the developing baby39s exposure in the womb to testosterone More older brothers a male child has the more likely he is to have a homosexual orientation Tendency to lose one39s train of thought in later aduthood staring into space unexplained excessive daytime sleepiness and disorganized thinking to Alzheimer39s disease Evolutionary Perspective Evolutionary perspective focuses on the biological base for universal mental characteristics that all humans share Explains general mental strategies and traits such as why we lie how attractiveness influences mate selection why fear of snakes is so common or why people universally like music and dancing The mind is seen as a set of information processing machines designed by the same process of natural selection that Danvin theorized Evolutionary psychologists study the evolutionary origins of human behavior They view the human behavior of not eating substances that have bitter tastes as an adaptive behavior that evolves as early humans came into contact with bitter plants Relationships between men and won are one of the many areas in which evolutionary psychologists conduct research Psychological Professionals and Areas of Specialization Psychologists have no medical training but have a doctorate degree They undergo intense academic training learning about many different areas of psychology before choosing a specialization Psychiatrist has no medical training but have a doctorate degree They specialize in diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders Psychiatric social worker is trained in the area of social work and usually possesses a master39s degree in that discipline Work more on the environmental conditions that can have an impact on mental disorders Psychology The Scientific Methodology Scientific method is used to reduce bias and error in the measurement of data Way to accomplish the goals of psychology of description explanation prediction and control Hypothesis is a tentative explanation based on observations A confirmation bias is a selective perception Descriptive Methods Natural observation gives researches a look into how they normally behavior Observer effect is when the animals or people know they are being watched and won39t behave normally Participant observation is when the researches become participants in a group Observation bias is when the observer sees what they except to see Case study is when an individual is studied in great detail Sigmun Freud based his entire theory of psychoanalysis on case studies of patients where he gathered information about their childhoods and relationships with others from the beginning of their lives to the present Phineas Gage had a large metal rod driven through his head and suffered a major personality change Case studies are detailed observations and are vulnerable to bias on the part of the person conducting the study Representative sample is randomly selecting subjects from a large pool Population is the entire group of people which the researches is interested in Finding Relationships Correlation is a statistical technique that measures the relationship between two or more variables A variable is anything that can change or vary The correlation coefficient represents the direction of the relationship and its strength Knowing the value of one variable allows researches to know the value of the other variable The correlation coefficient can be a positive or negative number If positive the two variables increase in the same direction If negative the two variables have an inverse relationship as one decreases one increases The strength of the relationship between the two variables ranges between 100 to 100 The number can39t be greater because of the formula and the imaginary line on a graph around which the points are together If a relationship is strong the number will be closer to 100 or 100 The closer the number is to zero the weaker the relationship Correlation doesn39t prove causation A correlation tells researches whether there is a relationship between the variables Experiments allow researches to manipulate the variable they think is causing some behavior while holding all other variables that might interfere constant and unchanging Operational definition specifies the variable of interest Independent variable is the variable that is manipulated Dependent variable is the measurable response The dependent variable is the one that is measured to see how the independent variable may have affected it Confounding variables interfere with each other and their possible effects on some other variable of interest Experimental group is the group that is exposed to the independent variable because it receives the manipulation Control group gets no treatment or some kind of treatment has no effect because it is used to control for the possibility that other factors might be causing the effect that is being examined Random selection is the best way to chose participants in any study Random assignment is randomly choosing participants to ensure extraneous variables Random assignment means that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to each condition Placebo effect is the participants belief influences their behavior A placebo has no medical effect Experimenter effect is the experimenters expectations not the participants To control the placebo effect is to give the control group an actual placebo something that has no treatment Singleblind study is when the participant is quotblindquot to the treatment they receive Double blind study is when the participant and research are quotblindquot to the treatment they receive and administer Ethics of Psychological Research Universities and colleges have institutional review boards where groups of psychologists look over research study and judge it according to its safety and participants The participants come first the research come second The research must explain the study to the people they want to include before they do anything that includes them It is necessary to deceive the participants because the study wouldn39t work any other way The participant can drop out of the study for any reason Participants must be protected from risks Freud used false names in his studies Critical thinking means making reasoned judgements
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