First week of notes, Ch. 1 and 2
First week of notes, Ch. 1 and 2 CHEM 211-002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Marcy on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 211-002 at George Mason University taught by Paul Cooper in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Briana Marcy CHEM 211002 Dr Cooper Lecture NotesSummary First 2 Weeks 3 days of notes Chapter 1 Chemistry is the study of matter and its properties the changes it can go through and the energy required for those changes Vocab to know matter composition properties Know the differences between physical and chemical properties and changes Basically if the composition changes it s chemical if not physical see textbook for examples of physical vs chem Changes Total energy equals potential plus kinetic energy LOWER states of energy are the and are preferred over high energy states quotEnergy is neither created nor destroyed 1 It is always conserved and can be converted to different forms Antoine Lavoisier 17431749 He was the father of modern chemistry The basic fundamental of chemistry is the existence of atoms and molecules which is really just a very good and welltested theory Make sure you know how to do chemical problem solving Remember units are manipulated in the same way as numbers See textbook pages 3239 for practice review How to measure the volume of a solid Measure the volume of water before and after placing the solid in the container Densitymassvolume or DMV If the temperature and pressures are known the density of a substance is a physical property with a specified value 1 All phrases in quotations are taken directly from the textbook or Dr Cooper s powerpoints as they cannot be reworded or the wording is ideal The unit for density is gcmquot3 Temperature Kelvin is universally used in science and all values are above zero and zero is quotabsolute zero nothing can be colder than that Make sure to know how to convert between Kelvin and Celsius 27315 degree difference Significant Figures sig figs All measurements have some amt of uncertainty so the digit on the far right is always estimated But the more sig figs there are the more certain your answer is NOT zeros that are only used to position the decimal point Zeros that END a number are significant whether before or after decimal point both places count but there HAS TO BE a decimal So for example 700 has 3 sig figs but 700 only has one If you want practice for sig figs see the sample problem on page of the textbook Rules for Sig Figs in various calculations 1 answer will have same of sig figs as the measurement with the fewest SIG FIGS 2 the answer will have the same of DECIMAL places as the smallest measurement in the problem Rounding Typically you should round at the end to avoid errors Rounding Rules For digits more than 5 the preceding goes up 1 if less than 5 it doesn t change If the 5 is removed but nothing or zeros are after it even numbers stay the same but odd 5 go up 1 Note exact 5 don t limit the of sig figs in a calculation Precision Accuracy and Error means that the data are all close together means the data are close to the correct value when values are both above and below the actual value Chapter 2 The Components of Matter Element the most basic part of a substance has only one type of atom and CANNOT be broken down any further Molecule contains 2 or more atoms that are bound together chemically so it works as an independent unit Compound a substance made up of 2 or more combined elements Mixture a grouping of 2 or more elements that are combined Law of Mass Conservation quotThe total mass of substances present does not change during a chemical reaction See powerpoint slide 27 for a review Law of Definite or Constant Composition quotNo matter the source a particular compound is composed of the same elements in the same parts fractions by mass Law of Multiple Proportions quotIf elements A and B react to form two compounds the different masses of B that combine with a fixed mass of A can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers Dalton s Atomic Theory He said that All matter is made of atoms Atoms of one type of element can t be converted to completely different atoms Atoms in a certain element are unique from atoms in other elements quotCompounds result from the chemical combination of a specific ratio of atoms of different elements Mass conservation Atoms can t be created or destroyed Every atom has a fixed specific mass that quotconstitutes a fixed fraction of the total mass in a compound Mass of an electron masscharge x charge Names of interest and worked to find the mass of an electron Millikan conducted the oildrop experiment is known for his ocscattering experiment and for discovering the nucleus of the atom Make sure to know general characteristics of an atom protons neutrons electrons their charges etc Sources Class textbook Chemistry Silberberg and Amateis 2015 Dr Cooper s powerpoints and verbal lectures
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