Week3NotesChem.pdf Chem 1407
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Reyes-Hernandez on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 1407 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Andrew Pardo in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
In class Notes Thursday September 13 2 15 235 AM Elements 0 Elements are pure substances from which all other things are built Sources of some Elements Names 0 Some elements are named for planets mythological figures minerals colors scientists and places Symbols of Elements 0 A symbol represents the name of an element and consists of 1 or 2 letters and starts with a capital letter 0 Ex C carbon Co cobalt Periodic Table of Elements 0 Remember guide lines and figures Periods and Groups 0 On the periodic table 0 Groups contain elements with similar properties and are arranged in vertical columns ordered from left to right 0 Periods are the horizontal rows of elements and they are counted from top as Period 1 to Period 7 Group Numbers 0 Use numbers to identify the columns from left to right 0 The letter A for the reps elements 1A to A and the letter B for the transition elements 0 The rep elements include the first 2 groups 0 Ex 1A 1 2A 2 Alkali Metals O The Alkali metals includes lithium sodium potassium rubidium and cesium The reactivity of these elements increase from the top to the bottom of the group Halogens O The halogens include fluorine chlorine bromine iodine and astatine Fluorine and chlorine are highly reactive Nobel Gases 0 Which include helium His neon Ne argon Ar Krypton Kr xenon Xe and radon Ra Elements are unreactive and are seldom found in combination with other elements Metals Nonmetals and Metalloids O The heavy zigzag line separates metals and nonmetals o Metals are to the left 0 Nonmetals to the right 0 Metalloids the zigzag line Properties of Metals Nonmetals and Metalloids O Metals are shiny and ductile good conductors O Nonmetals are not shiny or ductile bad conductors O Metalloids are in between conductors of the two and are used as semiconductors and insulators The amount of essential elements in a 60 kg adult 33 The Atom Dalton39s Atomic Theory 0 He theorized that Atoms are tiny particles of matter too small to see and are able to combine with other atoms to make compounds and are similar to each other for each element and different from atoms of other elements 0 A chemical reaction is the rearrangement of atoms 0 Subatomic Particles O Atoms contain subatomic particles such as o Protons which have a positive charge 0 Electrons which have a negative charge 0 Neutrons which have no charge 0 Experiments show that like charges repel and unlike charges attract o Rutherford39s GoldFoil Experiment 0 In this experiment positively charged particles were aimed at atoms of gold 0 Most went straight through well they others deflected only occasionally 0 The Conclusion There must be a small dense positively charged nucleus in the atom that deflects positive particles that come close 0 Structure of the Atom 0 It Consists of a nucleus that have protons and neutrons and electrons in a large empty space around the nucleus 0 Atomic Mass scale 0 On atomic mass scale for subatomic particles 1 atomic mass unit amu is defined as 112 of the mass of the carbon 12 atom therefore 0 Proton has a mass of 1 amu Neutron has a mass of 1 amu Electron has a mass of 00055 amu o The mass of an atom is made up of the proton and neutron mass 34 Atomic Number and Mass number 0 Atomic Number 0 Is specific for each element 0 Is the same for all atoms of an element 0 Is equal to the number of protons in an atom 0 Appears above the symbol of an element in the periodic table 0 Atomic number and protons 0 Each elements has a unique atomic number equal to the number of protons 0 Number of electrons in an Atom 0 All atoms of an element are electrically neutral 0 A net charge of zero 0 An equal number of protons and electrons 0 Mass number 0 Mass number represents the number of subatomic particles in the nucleus which is equal to the sum of the 0 Number or protons number of neutrons 0 Because the account of the majority of the mass 35 Isotopes and Atomic mass 0 Isotopes 0 Are atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers 0 Have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons 0 Can be distinguished by atomic symbols 0 Isotopes and Mass and Atomic symbols 0 Since each isotope of an element has a different number of neutrons each isotopes mass number will be different We write these as atomic symbols 0 Mass numbers are in the upper left corner 0 Atomic numbers are in the lower left corner Atomic Symbols 0 For an atom the atomic symbol gives the number of o Protons o Neutrons o Electrons Learning check 0 Naturally occurring carbon consists of three isotopes 0 C12 c13 C14 0 P 6 6 6 O N 6 7 8 o E 6 6 6 Learning check 0 Write the nuclear symbol for atoms with the following subatomic particles 0 9 p 10n 9 e 19 top 9 bottom F o 17 p 20n 17e 37 top 17 bottom CL 0 47p 60n 47 e 107 top 47 bottom Ag Which of the following pairs are isotopes of the same element Which of the following paris do both atoms have 8 neutrons o 12 top 6 bottom 2 14 top 6 bottom 2 Atomic Mass 0 The atomic mass of an element s listed below the symbol of each element on the periodic table Gives the mass of an quotaveragequot atom of each element compared to c12 o Is not the same as the mass number o Is calculated using a weighted average 0 Calculating the atomic mass for CI look over the book Calculating Atomic Mass of Mg 0 For this we use a weight average because the atomic mass 0 To calculate the atomic mass of an element we need to know the percent of abundance materials Learning check 0 The atomic mass of Cl is 3545 amu Based on this information 36 Electrons and Reactivity O Atoms contain 0 a very small nucleus packed with neutrons and positively charged protons o A large volume of space around the nucleus that contains the negativity charged electrons It is the electron that determine the physical and chemical properties of atoms Electrons Housing 0 Electrons do Not just float around the nuclease of the atom 0 They are distributed according to energy levels 0 Electron Energy Levels 0 Electrons surround the Nucleus in specific energy level Each energy level has a principal quantum number n The lowest energy level which is close to the nucleus Electrons energy levels increase in energy level with distance from the nucleus The more electrons they hold The more energy the electrons have 00000 0 Sublevels 0 Within each energy level we have sublevels that 0 Contain electrons with identical energy 0 Are identified by the letters 5 p d and f O The number of sublevels with a given energy level is equal in energy 0 Energy of Sublevels O S sublevel is the lowest energy 0 P slightly higher 0 D slightly higher 0 F highest in energy 0 Orbitals 0 Each electrons sublevels consisted of orbitals O The can hold up to 2 electrons o S orbitals c We know that s orbital have a spherical shape 0 As the S Orbital gets bigger as N gets bigger o P Orbitals 0 They start with energy level 2 o The p orbitals get bigger as n increases 0 3 ofthem XYZ o D Orbitals 0 They fall on the plane each can hold 5 o Sublevels and Orbitals 0 Each sublevel consists of specific number of orbitals o S has 1 o P has 3 IE 23 3s 4s 53 GS 73 o DhasS o F has 7 Learning Check 0 The number and type of orbtials in each of the following o 4 s lorb o 3 d 5 orb o N3 1 3 5 orbs Learning check 0 Election that can occupy a p orbital is 1 O P orbs in 2p sublevel is 3 O D orbital in the n4 energy level is 5 O Electrons that can occupy 4f is 14 37 Order of filling 0 Energy levels are filled with electrons O In order of up energy 0 Beginning with quit number n1 Orbital diagrams 0 An orbital diagram shows 0 Orbital as boxes in each sublevel o Electrons in orbitals as vertical arrows o Electrons in the same orbital with opposite spins up and down vertical arrows 0 Li ltgt lt 1 s2 is filled 2s1 is halted filled Order of filling 39 0 Electron in an atom 0 Fill the lowest energy levels and orbitals first 0 Fill orbitals in particular sublevel with on electrons 0 Fill each orbital using electrons with opposite spins Writing orbital diagrams O The orbital diagrams for carbon has 6 electrons o 2 electrons are used to fill the 1s orbital o 392 more electrons are used to fill the 2s orbital o 1 electrons is used in two of the 2p orbitals so they are half filled leaving one p orbital empty N 7e 1s2s2p ltgt ltgt lt lt lt O 8e 1s2s2p ltgt ltgt ltgt ltlt Mg 12e 1s 2s 2p 3s ltgt ltgt ltgtltgtltgt ltgt Fe 26e 1sltgt 2sltgt 2p ltgtltgtltgt 3sltgt 3pltgtltgtltgt 4sltgt 3dltltgt lt lt lt lt Uses superscripts exponent Electron Configuration 0 And electron configuration 0 Lists that filled and partially filled energy levels in order of increasing energy 0 List sublevels filling with electrons in order of increasing energy 0 Uses superscripts to show the number of electrons in each sublevel 1squot1 1squot2 Abbreviated Configuration O In an abbreviated configuration 0 The symbol of the noble gas in brackets representing completed sublevels O The reaming electrons are listed in order of their sublevels
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