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by: Chase Heffron

exsc223week3.pdf EXSC 223 001

Chase Heffron
Anatomy and Physiology 1

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These are week 3's notes. They focus primarily on the process of protein synthesis and DNA replication.
Anatomy and Physiology 1
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chase Heffron on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EXSC 223 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Thompson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Physical Education at University of South Carolina.

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Date Created: 09/11/15
Week 3 Process of protein synthesis continued Translation takes place in the cytosol mRNA is transported out of the nucleus through a nuclear pore Translation is converting from a nucleotide language to an amino acid language In a cell we have mRNA which represents the copy of a single gene The rRNA is mostly RNA with some protein The rRNA39s job is to act as a translator for the mRNA transcript tRNA carries complementary sequences for a speci c amino acid It is tRNA39s job to bring the amino acids to the ribosome The tRNA39s codes are in triplets called codons Codons either code for single speci c amino acids or to start translation or to stop translation The ribosome attaches codons that are complementary to triplets on the mRNA Each tRNA brings an amino acid and creates a chain of Amino acids that are complementary with the the mRNA Initiation Elongation and Termination also apply to Translation Initiation is when the start codon AUG begins the sequence of translation Elongation is the process of tRNA adding amino acids one by one and forming a chain of amino acids Termination is the stopping of translation by codon UGA or the other stop codons At the end of Translation a protein or peptide chain is created Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum RER Called rough because it has bumps ribosomes on it The Rough ER is associated with protein synthesis with proteins that are going to be secreted out of the cell or part of the membrane The Rough ER is always found near the nucleus Ribosomes can either be free or bound Free ribosomes are in the cytosol and produce cytosolic proteins Bound ribosomes are found on the Rough ER although they are not actually bound to it The Rough ER is also involved in the phospholipid synthesis for membrane formation The proteins produced by ribosomes on the RER are pulled into the RER matrix by the Signal Recoonition Particle The proteins inside the RER become modi ed This is called post translational modi cation Some are made into glycoproteins some proteins aid in the folding of these proteins and they will be packaged into a vesicle to be taken out These vesicles are sent to the golgi apparatus and enter the on the Cis face The proteins go through many modi cations then are sent out of the GA on the Trans face Protein Demolition Proteolvsis Degradation of soluble cytosolic proteins The ubiquitin proteasome pathway takes useless proteins and recycles its amino acids To do this old proteins must be tagged with the protein ubiquitin This tagging requires ATP This causes a proteasome another protein to degrade the proteins and reuse the amino acids This process will happen to damaged proteins incorrectly folded proteins and aged or unneeded proteins cyclins Be able to explain the process of protein synthesis for the test Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum SER Attached to the RER Triglycerides are synthesized here Other functions include cholesterol synthesis in the liver lipid metabolism steroid hormone synthesis drug alcohol detoxi cation breakdown of stored glycogen ln muscle cells Caquot2 storage and release The Nucleus Almost all cells in your body have a nucleus Red blood cells don39t The nucleus has a double membrane The Nucleus also has a number of pores that allow for mRNA to move in and out of the nucleus The Nucleolus is a darker region inside of the nucleus that produces ribosomes In the lighter part of Nucleus chromatin is found Chromatin is the loosely bound network of DNA Chromatin under an electron microscope looks like a string with beads on it Cells can have more than one nucleus Skeletal muscle cells can have thousands of nuclei Cardiac muscle cells can have up to 4 nuclei Nuclear domain theorv nucleus can only support a certain amount of cell volume In skeletal muscle more nuclei can be recruited to maintain growing skeletal muscle cell volume DNA that makes up most chromatin consists of double helix with hydrogen bonds between base pairs The hydrogen bonds make DNA stable and dif cult to damage Mutations can be the result of a base pair change Sickle Cell anemia for instance is the result of one base pair mutation in a protein in red blood cells Mutations can also be the result of an insertion of an extra base pair Chromosomes Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes 22 are autosomes 1 sex Autosomes have a copy of each gene from the mother and father The Sex chromosomes are either x or y Females have XX and males XY Each strand of chromosomes have telomere which is a region of DNA at the end of each chromosome that protects against deterioration and ensures that DNA polymerase makes a complete copy of the DNA Telomerase is an enzyme that restores length of end caps The Centromere is a noncoding region of chromosomes where 2 strands of DNA sister chromatids attach The Kinetochore is the protein found at the centromere that connects mitotic spindle to chromatid The kinetochore allows the two strands of DNA to separate Histone proteins proteins that the DNA wraps around The DNA histone combination is known as a nucleosome By the DNA wrapping around histones it becomes less likely to damage DNA cannot be copied in this form Two chromosomes form an X shape in this form Mitosis series of events that exist in a mitotic phase There is the interphase and Mitotic phase lnterphase 61 phase this is called the growth phase of the cell In this phase there is a checkpoint This checkpoint determines whether or not the cell can advance to the next cell When the cell is ready it advances to the S phase S phase DNA is replicated in this phase Helicase unwinds the DNA a DNA polymerase attaches to each separated strand The polymerase that is on the leading strand takes free nucleotides and matches the base pairs to create an new strand of DNA On the old template strand fragments are produced It makes copies of pieces of the old template strands These fragments are called okazaki fragments There is a process that lls in these gaps to repair this strand of DNA This is often where errors are made in DNA replication


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