Chapter 1 Notes
Chapter 1 Notes PSYC-20651-003
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This 40 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maria Apostolescu on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-20651-003 at Kent State University taught by Jenna wall in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychlogy at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
HISTORY THEORY AND RESEARCH STRATEGIES Outline I What is child development I Historical Foundations II Scientific Foundations E Classic Theories E Current Theories I Research basics Developmental Psychology II Researchers had to break human development into different stages What is child development II Field of study devoted to understanding constancy and change from conception through adolescence II Interdisciplinary Domains of development El 3 domains of development I Physical I Cognitive I Emotional and social What is theory E Set of statements that describe explain and predict behavior E Gives meaning to what we see E Helps us understand development E Depends on scientific verification Theories of child development I No single theory can explain all of child development I All organized around 3 main issues 1 Continuous or discontinuous development 2 One course of development or many 3 Relative influence of nature and nurture 1 Continuous or discontinuous dimlithnn di mi rig Aduilmh ndi a iEnn tinunus lemlnp mam Ili mntinunnug Emmelpment 2 One course or many 3 Nature or Nurture II Inborn hereditary information I Vs II Our physical and social world III BOTH 3 Nature or Nurture II Resilient children E Able to adapt even with threats to development Beat the odds 4 factors that protect children from the damaging effects of stressful life events I Personal characteristics l Warm parental relationship I Social support I A strong community Historical foundations Medieval Era Childhood regarded as separate phase with special needs 16th Century Puritan belief that children are uncivilized tainted by sin 17th Century Locke tabula rasa or blank slate 1 8th Century Rousseau noble savages view Scientific Beginnings l 800s Evolutionary Theory Darwin natural selection and survival of the fittest Normative Approach Hall amp Gesell Agerelatecl averages based on measurements of large numbers of children Mental Testing Movement Binet amp Simon Early developers of intelligence tests Classic Theories l cOOs Psychoanalytic Perspective BehaviorismSocial Learning Theory Cognitive Development Psychoanalytic perspective II Freud s Psychosexual rheory Table 11 l Oral s rage Bir rh 1 year I Anal stage 1 3 years I Phallic stage 3 6 years I La rency stage 6 1 1years l Geni ral stage 1 1 Psychoanalytic perspective II Freucl s theory of personality I 3 parts of personality I lcl ID SUPEREGO I E o u quotGood people 9 lwam that don t think about those things right now l Superego EGO quotLet s gure out a way to work together Psychoanalytic perspective II Erik Erikson s Psychosocial Theory Table 12 Basic trust v Birth l year Identity v role Adolescence mistrust confusion Autonomy v 1 3 years Intimacy v Emerging shame and isolation Adulthood doubt Initiative v guilt 3 6 years Generativity v Adulthood stagnation Industry v 6 1 years Integrity v Old Age inferiority despair Behdviorism II Behdviorism I Research should focus on directly observable events I Stimulus Response I John Watson Cldssicdl Conditioning I Little Albert I B F Skinner Operdnt Conditioning l Reinforcers vs Punishments Social learning rheory D Social Learning Theory Observational learning Alber r Banclura l Bobo Doll I Video I d hit that Cognitive development theory II Jean Piaget II Active learners El 4 stages I Sensorimotor Birth 2 years I Preoperational 2 7 years I Concrete Operational 7 l 1 years I Formal Operational 1 1 Recen r Theories Information Processing Ethology Sociocultural Theory Ecologicol Systems Theory Dynamic Systems Theory Table 4 Information Processing II Human mind is like a computer E Input Environment E Output Behavior E Continuous development E Limitations nonlinearlogical cognition creativity imagination Ethology III Ethology E Adoptivesurvival value of behavior and its evolutionary history E Imprinting E Sensitive Periods Sociocultural theory III Lev Vygotsky II Culture D Social interaction II Cognitive development is sociallymediated II Limitations neglects biology Ecological sys rems rheory II Urie Bronfenbrenner E 4 layers of the environment I Microsys rem act 0 5 VS 399 I Aesosys rem QkOSVSI e I 233 S History I Mocrosys rem laws G OSVS G 3 W Family 08 0 Parent s 9 Work Work Famlly Environ ment Siblings School Peers CUlture I Ch ronosys rem Peers Mass Media Social Conditions Neighborhoods Economic System Ecological systems theory I Microsystem E Child s immediate surroundings E Bidirectional relationships f 0 5 VS 139 Wquot 90 Osys teb Extended S 0 5 VS 1 G s a Family M d 06 0O Siblings Siblings 0 Peers 0 l Peers Mass Media School Sch Neighborhoods E oooo mic System Ecological systems theory II Mesosystem E Connections between microsystems E Ex Parents and school involvement ac 0 5 VS 399 s 07 3 Sys tel Extended eso S Family 0 o S 6Wido a Work Family 9 Work Family Siblings School Siblings School Peers Peers 39Mass Socual Media Conditions Neighborhoods Economic System History Parent s Work Environ ment Ecological systems theory I Exosystem E Social settings not directly experienced by the child E Ex Healthwelfare services Laws 36 0 5 VS 393 1 Sys tel Extended 950 5 VS 393 ram s x 051931930 0 History Family Parent s 9 work work Family Envuron ment Siblings School Siblings Conditions Neighborhoods Peers SChOO39 Peers Economic System Ecological systems theory I Macrosystem E Cultural values laws customs and resources E Ex Eclucation requirement T 0 5 VS 139 Wquot 90 Osys 190 Extended S Family Laws S 650 Yst s a M d 06 09 Siblings School Sch 0 Peers 0 l Peers Mass Media Neighborhoods E oooo mic System Ecological sys rems Theory II Chronosys rem II Environmentsystem is everchanging II Children are products and producers Dynamic systems D Systems are integrated and work together E Cognitive E Physical E Social II Dynamic always changing II Change reorganization Studying The Child Research Methods Research Designs Developmental Designs Ethical Issues Physiological Methods II Electroencephalogrom EEG E Brain wolves E Arousal s ro res Physiological Methods II Mogne roencephologrophy MEG Cognitive processes vision audition and language processing in fe ruses oncl newborns Be r rer spatial resolution than EEG Physiological Methods II Functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI I Blood flow Brain Activity While Performing Different Tasks Passively Viewing Words Listening to Words Spedting Words Generating Verbs Designs for studying development 1 Longitudinal E Studied at different ages to measure change in a variable I Expensive time consuming practice effects drop out rate 2 Crosssectional E Different age groups tested at the same time point to examine differences between developmental stages I Lose information about individual trends Designs for studying development 35equen al E Combines longitudinal crosssectional follows two or more age groups over time I More confident about conclusion same limitations 4 Microgenetic E Longitudinal design but with closely spaced assessments I Don t know how long it will take to see change Ethical issues in child development II Parents must give consent II Children have the rights to be protected from harm informed consent privacy knowledge of results beneficial treatments CHAPTER 1 QUIZ II Opens at 645pm I Closes Tuesday September 15 530PM
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