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General Bio 2 week 8 notes

by: Evan Gallagher

General Bio 2 week 8 notes EBIO 1220

Marketplace > University of Colorado > Science > EBIO 1220 > General Bio 2 week 8 notes
Evan Gallagher
GPA 3.5

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General bio 2 1220 week 8 notes. The topics covered include human reproduction and the end of the endocrine system
General Biology 2
Dr. Carol Kearns
Class Notes
Gen Bio 2, EBIO 1220, human reproduction
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Evan Gallagher on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1220 at University of Colorado taught by Dr. Carol Kearns in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see General Biology 2 in Science at University of Colorado.


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Date Created: 03/04/16
General Bio 2 week 8  Evan Gallagher  2/29 Excretion Osmoregulation­ is the process that maintains water and salt in homeostatic  concentrations Excretion­ rids the body of nitrogenous wastes like Urea Osmoconformers­ are isosmotic with their environment. Examples include many  marine invertebrates  Osmoregulators­ must control their internal salt and water concentration  Stenohaline­ animals can tolerate little change in the salt concentration of the  environment  Euryhaline­  animals can stand fairly large fluctuations in the salt concentration in their  environment  Bony fish­ salt water fish and freshwater fish have different problems.  Cartilaginous fish­ How do sharks regulate their salt and water balance  Filtration­ Pushes fluid from leaky capillaries of the glomerulus into the Bowman’s  capsule. The large fluid consists of water a dissolved solutes. Large molecules like  proteins and blood cells do not move out of the capillaries. Filtration is not elective  Secretion­ Removal of additional, unwanted substances from the capillaries into the  filtrate by active and passive transport  Reabsorption­ recovery of materials needed by the body. About 99% of the water is  revered, glucose, among acids, vitamins, some ions and salys. Water is recovered by  osmosis due to the concentration gradient  Countercurrent exchange­ a mechanism occurring in nature in which there is a  crossover of some property between two flowering bodies flowing in opposite directions Aldosterone­ helps retain salt. High retention of salt means high detention of water via  osmosis  3/2 Sexual reproduction sexual reproduction is the creator of an offspring by fusion of a male gamete and a  female gamete to make a zygote  asexual reproduction is creation of offspring without the fusion of egg and sperm Human reproduction ovaries­ each ovary contains many follicles which consist of a partially developed egg,  called an oocyte, surrounded by support cells Ovulation expels an egg cell from the follicle  The remaining follicular tissue grows within the ovary, forming a mass called the corpus lateum The male’s external reproductive organs are the scrotum and the penis  Internal organs are the gonads, which produce sperm and hormones, and accessory  glands  semen is composed of sperm plus secretions from three sets of accessory glands  The two seminal vesicles contribute about 60% of the total volume of semen  The prostate gland secretes its products directly into the urethra through several small  ducts The timing and pattern of meiosis Gametogenesis, the production of gametes by meiosis, differs in females and males  sperm are small and motel and are produced throughout the life of sexually mature  male  spermatogenesis is production of mature sperm Eggs contain stored nutrients, cytoplasm and organelles and are much larger than  sperm Oogenesis is development of mature oocytes (EGGS) and can take many years  primary oocytes are present at birth. They are arrested in prophase 1 of meiosis  Differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis  • In oogenesis, one egg forms from each cycle  of meiosis; in spermatogenesis four  sperm form from each cycle of meiosis  • Oogenesis ceases later in life in females; spermatogenesis continues through out the  adult life of males  • Oogenesis has long interruptions; spermatogenesis produces sperm from precursor  cells in a continuous sequence  The sex hormones are androgens, estrogens, and progesterone  Sex hormones regulate:  • The development of primary sex characteristics during embryogenesis  • The development of secondary sex characteristics  • sexual behavior and sex drive  3/4 Human reproduction FSH(follicle stimulating hormone) stimulates the follicle to grow LH (luteinizing hormone) acts on growing follicle causing follicle to make estrogen  Estrus Cycles (rather than menstrual cycles) are characteristics of most mammals • The endometrium is reabsorbed by the uterus  • sexual receptivity is limited to a heat period  • The length and frequency of estrus cycles varies from species to species 


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