General Bio 2 week 8 notes
General Bio 2 week 8 notes EBIO 1220
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Evan Gallagher on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1220 at University of Colorado taught by Dr. Carol Kearns in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see General Biology 2 in Science at University of Colorado.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
General Bio 2 week 8 Evan Gallagher 2/29 Excretion Osmoregulation is the process that maintains water and salt in homeostatic concentrations Excretion rids the body of nitrogenous wastes like Urea Osmoconformers are isosmotic with their environment. Examples include many marine invertebrates Osmoregulators must control their internal salt and water concentration Stenohaline animals can tolerate little change in the salt concentration of the environment Euryhaline animals can stand fairly large fluctuations in the salt concentration in their environment Bony fish salt water fish and freshwater fish have different problems. Cartilaginous fish How do sharks regulate their salt and water balance Filtration Pushes fluid from leaky capillaries of the glomerulus into the Bowman’s capsule. The large fluid consists of water a dissolved solutes. Large molecules like proteins and blood cells do not move out of the capillaries. Filtration is not elective Secretion Removal of additional, unwanted substances from the capillaries into the filtrate by active and passive transport Reabsorption recovery of materials needed by the body. About 99% of the water is revered, glucose, among acids, vitamins, some ions and salys. Water is recovered by osmosis due to the concentration gradient Countercurrent exchange a mechanism occurring in nature in which there is a crossover of some property between two flowering bodies flowing in opposite directions Aldosterone helps retain salt. High retention of salt means high detention of water via osmosis 3/2 Sexual reproduction sexual reproduction is the creator of an offspring by fusion of a male gamete and a female gamete to make a zygote asexual reproduction is creation of offspring without the fusion of egg and sperm Human reproduction ovaries each ovary contains many follicles which consist of a partially developed egg, called an oocyte, surrounded by support cells Ovulation expels an egg cell from the follicle The remaining follicular tissue grows within the ovary, forming a mass called the corpus lateum The male’s external reproductive organs are the scrotum and the penis Internal organs are the gonads, which produce sperm and hormones, and accessory glands semen is composed of sperm plus secretions from three sets of accessory glands The two seminal vesicles contribute about 60% of the total volume of semen The prostate gland secretes its products directly into the urethra through several small ducts The timing and pattern of meiosis Gametogenesis, the production of gametes by meiosis, differs in females and males sperm are small and motel and are produced throughout the life of sexually mature male spermatogenesis is production of mature sperm Eggs contain stored nutrients, cytoplasm and organelles and are much larger than sperm Oogenesis is development of mature oocytes (EGGS) and can take many years primary oocytes are present at birth. They are arrested in prophase 1 of meiosis Differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis • In oogenesis, one egg forms from each cycle of meiosis; in spermatogenesis four sperm form from each cycle of meiosis • Oogenesis ceases later in life in females; spermatogenesis continues through out the adult life of males • Oogenesis has long interruptions; spermatogenesis produces sperm from precursor cells in a continuous sequence The sex hormones are androgens, estrogens, and progesterone Sex hormones regulate: • The development of primary sex characteristics during embryogenesis • The development of secondary sex characteristics • sexual behavior and sex drive 3/4 Human reproduction FSH(follicle stimulating hormone) stimulates the follicle to grow LH (luteinizing hormone) acts on growing follicle causing follicle to make estrogen Estrus Cycles (rather than menstrual cycles) are characteristics of most mammals • The endometrium is reabsorbed by the uterus • sexual receptivity is limited to a heat period • The length and frequency of estrus cycles varies from species to species
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