Psyc4220 Week 4 Notes
Psyc4220 Week 4 Notes PSYC 4220
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Conner on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
PSYC4220 WEEK 4 LECTURE NOTES September 7 2015 LABOR DAY September 9 2015 Postmature infants still not born 2 weeks past due date Placenta functioning diminished less amniotic uid Less oxygen Larger babymore difficult delivery More likely to aspirate meconium poop More doctors will induce labor After birth the infant Apgar test used to assess newborn status by checking Appearance color Pinkish not blue or pale Scale02 Pulse Grimace re exes Crying coughing sneezinggood Activity muscle tone Movements Respiration Check once right after birth again 5 minutes later Apgar score of 710good 4 or lowerneed medical attention Parenting Styles Pg 258259 Dimensions of childrearing AcceptanceResponsiveness extent of parents support sensitivity to needs warmth and praise DemandingnessControl level of control expectations for compliance Authoritative high acceptancehigh demandingness affectionate high but reasonable expectations democratic control explains why there are rules Authoritarian low acceptancehigh demandingness low warmth high unrealistic expectations very strict rules with no explanation quotdrill sergeantquot Permissive high acceptancelow demandingness very affectionate low expectations lack of rulesstructure Tdendquot Uninvolved ow acceptancelow demandingness ow warmth low expectations neglecting Parenting Styles Outcomes Authoritative selfreliant selfcontrolled friendly cooperative independent achievement oriented Authoritarian withdrawn anxious low selfesteem lower academic performance girsvery dependent on parents boyshostie angry de ant Permissive dependent low in social skills impulsive aggressive disobedient rebellious low in achievement orientation lower academic performance Uninvolved worst outcome by age 3higher in aggression lower academic performance anger depression more likely to be antisocial or deviant as teens Parenting Styles Parent effects model parents in uence how child develops Child effects model child in uences parents and parenting style Research supports parent effects model Longitudinal studies Authoritative parents toddlers become more compliant and decrease behavior problems Authoritarian parents toddlers become more de ant and increase in behavior problems Research also supports child effects model Stubborn impulsive children elicit more punitive coercive parenting Parents become more lax less affectionate even hostile and uninvolved Transactional model parents and kids in uence each other Parents appear to have more in uence on kids than kids have on pa renting Becomes more bidirectional as kid s age Important notes Some kids with permissiveauthoritarian parents develop just ne Parents do not always use one style consistently with all kids and may differ in style from coparent September 112015 Contextual Effects on Parenting Styles Parenting styles model criticized for focusing mainly on American white middleupper SES families May not apply as well as other groups Successful parenting is in uenced by cultural values and parenting goals Using styles to classify other groups may not work Authoritative parenting is rare outside of USWestern cultures which may instead promote inherent authority of parents Authoritarian parenting Not exactly many have high warmth too Even within US may be hard to apply model to lower SES or different ethnicities Native American Hispanic American and Asian American parents are more controlling stress respect for and obedience to authority and dependence on family But this is not detrimental Asian American parents use mostly Authoritarian style Asian American kids with most authoritarian parents score highest on cognitive tests Many African American mothers especially single less educated demand strict obedience and use coercive physical punishment Does not increase aggressionantisocial behavior For African American kids correlations found between authoritarian parenting and school performance social competence Sign of caring While some parenting styles are more effective there is no style that works for all families in all settings However authoritative parenting correlated with positive outcomes in all groups studied Warmth and controlbest outcomes for most Uninvolvedneglectfulworst outcomes Chapter 5lnfancy Physical Development Infant re exes Unlearned involuntary response to stimuli See table 53 pg 123 Infants thought to have 27 re exes when born Some diminish over time most fade during 1st year as brain matures 2 categories Survival re exes Offer protectionsatisfy basic survival needs Ex Breathing eyeblink Swallowing sucking and rooting Doesn t have to be taught how to eat Swimmingthrow newborn into water move arms and legs to stay a oat and hold breath goes away Primitive re exes No clear survival value Examples Babinski re exstroke foot baby fans toes and curls them back Grasping re exautomatically grab and hold tightly when something s in palm goes away Allows for bonding Stepping re exdangle baby above surface they step like they re walking goes away Moro re exStartle re exif baby feels loss of support throws arms out and pulls them back in Infant States Sleeping Born with organized patterns of activitystates different degrees of awareness to internet and external stimuli Table 52 pg 119 70 of time spent in sleeping alert only 23 hours per day by 37 months most sleep for at least 6 hour stretches at night nap 23 times per day 2 weeks before birth2 months after 50 of sleep is REM sleep by 6 months only 2530 is REM sleep development of brain Motor Development amp Physical Growth 4 principles of growth Cephalocaudal proceeds from head downward Proximodistal proceeds from middle of body outward Hierarchical Integration simple skill develops 1 than are combined into complex skills Independence of systems different body systems develop different rates Motor Development Compare children to developmental norms typical age range of mastery of a skill
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